Towards a greater vision
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June 2013. Towards A Greater Vision. Monitoring the pattern and growth of South Korea’s media. Presented by: Oloruntobi “IBK” Jaiyeola SIS -645-E01L-E91L-2013XE International Communication & Cultural Policy Affiliation: American University Web: http:// southkoreaniccpolicy.wordpress.com.

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Towards A Greater Vision

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Towards a greater vision

June 2013

Towards A Greater Vision

Monitoring the pattern and growth of South Korea’s media

Presented by: Oloruntobi “IBK” Jaiyeola

SIS-645-E01L-E91L-2013XE International Communication & Cultural PolicyAffiliation: American University Web: http://southkoreaniccpolicy.wordpress.com


Media history

Media History

  • Colonial Period (1910-1945): restriction by Japanese colonial government

  • The American Military rule, the First and Second republics (1945~1961): unstable democracy, guaranteed freedom of press followed by misuse of freedom.

  • The military regimes (1961~1987): return to severe restrictions on political content. Creation of soft news and sensationalism trend. Consolidation of industries by government and creation of oligopolies

  • Civilian governments (1988~present): Return to freedom and independence of press with the exception of few administrations. Rise of digital revolution.


Structure

Structure

Television

  • Out of the country's 4 terrestrial television networks listed below, 3 of them are owned by the Government of South Korea.

    • Korea Broadcasting System (KBS) - Public; owned by Government of South Korea

    • MunhwaBroadcasting Corporation (MBC) Public; owned by Government of South Korea

    • Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS): Private

    • Education Broadcasting System (EBS): Public; owned by Government of South Korea

      CJ Group one the largest conglomerate in South Korea, owns several cable TV channels under its subsidiary CJ Entertainment


Structure1

Structure

Newspapers/ Publishing

Most newspapers in the country are controlled by industrial conglomerates, and are often critical of the government

The three newspapers with the widest circulations (ChosunIlbo, DongAIlbo and JoongAngIlbo) are privately owned. They have a circulation of two million people each

There are over 100 operating national newspapers including two English newspapers - The Korea Times and The Korea Herald.


Structure2

Structure

Radio

  • Like the television networks, the radio networks are predominantly owned by the Government of South Korea.

    • Korea Broadcasting System (KBS) - Public; owned by Government of South Korea

    • MunhwaBroadcasting Corporation (MBC) Public; owned by Government of South Korea

    • Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS): Private

    • Education Broadcasting System (EBS): Public; owned by Government of South Korea

    • Christian Broadcasting System (EBS): Public; Government funded

    • Traffic Broadcasting System (EBS): Public; Government funded


Digital media revolution censorship

Digital Media Revolution & Censorship

The country has a very high internet usage. There were an estimated 40 million South Koreans online by the end of 2011 (BBC 2012).

Micro blogging and social networking sites are very popular

December, 2010: the Korea Communications Commission (KCC) announced internet content monitoring policy… which would automatically delete any online anti-governmental message

Under the administration of Lee Myung-bak


Kcsc korean communications standards commission

KCSC (Korean Communications Standards Commission)


Digital media revolution censorship1

Digital Media Revolution & Censorship

2012 SCORES

PRESS STATUS

Partly Free

PRESS FREEDOM SCORE

32

LEGAL ENVIRONMENT

9

POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT

14

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

9

There have been several forms of restrictions under Myung-bak, causing Korea’s press freedom status to drop due to the government’s attempts to censor and restrict content.

In 2007: Some bloggers were censored, arrested, and their posts deleted by police for expressing criticism of, or support for, given presidential candidates

Despite plurality of media, the governments restrictions and manipulation of media laws, do not reflect the true freedom of press of a democracy – uncanny resemblance to its authoritarian regime


Why does this matter

Why does this matter?

Because of social and cultural infrastructures like MediACT

MediACT is part of the digital revolution and was a victim of Lee Myung-bak’s policies in 2010 facing a shut down

Lee Myung-bak may be out of office, but the policies are not, and the mediascape and culture sector in South Korea runs the risk of creative suppression

Let us make South Korea a true democracy


Thank you

Thank you!


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