Image sensor technologies
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Image Sensor Technologies. Chris Soltesz SSE Deluxe Sony Electronics, Inc. BPSD. Image Sensor Technologies. An introductory guide to CCD and CMOS imagers. Image Sensors. An image sensor is an electronic device that converts a image (light) to an electric signal.

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Image sensor technologies

Image Sensor Technologies

Chris Soltesz

SSE Deluxe

Sony Electronics, Inc.

BPSD


Image sensor technologies1

Image Sensor Technologies

An introductory guide to CCD and CMOS imagers


Image sensor technologies

Image Sensors

  • An image sensor is an electronic device that converts a image (light) to an electric signal.

    • They’re used in digital cameras and other imaging devices. Imagers are typically an array of charge-coupled devices (CCD) or CMOS sensors such as active-pixel sensors (APS).


Color principles

Color Principles


Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum


Spectral characteristics

Spectral Characteristics


Color primaries

Color Primaries


Color primaries1

R

Y

M

WHITE

G

B

C

BLUE

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

RED

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

GREEN

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

Color Primaries


Dichroic prism

Blue Imager

Green Imager

White Light

Red Imager

Dichroic Prism


Additive color

Additive Color


Image sensor technologies2

Image Sensor Technologies


Image sensor technologies

Image Sensor Technologies


Image sensor technologies

The difference is in the strategies and mechanisms developed to

carry out those functions.

What is the difference between CCD & CMOS imagers?

  • Generate and Collect Charge

  • Measure Charge and turn into voltage or current

  • Output the signal

  • Transfer Mechanism


Image sensor technologies

Mechanism Differences

CCD Image Sensor

Charge-to-voltage Conversion /Amplification

Charge

Transfer

Vertical and Horizontal CCD

Amplifier behind Horizontal CCD

Light-to-charge Conversion

Charge

Accumulation

Photo Sensor (Light-sensitive Region) of a Pixel

Charge-to-voltage Conversion /Amplification

Voltage Transfer

Amplifier within Pixel

Signal Wire (Micro Wire)

CMOS Image Sensor

Capacitance Equation

or

C = Capacitance

Q = Charge

V = Voltage


Image sensor technologies

CCD Image Sensor

Photo Sensor (b)(Light-sensitive Region)

Pixel (a)

Light

Charge (Electrons)

Vertical CCD (c)

Output

Amplifier (x)

Horizontal CCD (d)


Image sensor technologies

CMOS Image Sensor

Pixel (a)

Amplifier (y)

Photo Sensor (b)(Light-sensitive Region)

Light

Signal

ON

ON

ON

Charge

Pixel-select Switch (e)

Pixel Row (j)

Column Signal Wire(f)(Micro Wire)

Column-select Switch (g)

Column Circuit (h)

Row Signal Wire (i) (Micro Wire)

ON

Output


Basic mechanism of ccd image sensors

Basic Mechanism of CCD Image Sensors


Image sensor technologies

CCD Image Sensor

Photo Sensor (b)(Light-sensitive Region)

Pixel (a)

Light

Charge (Electrons)

Vertical CCD (c)

Output

Amplifier (x)

Horizontal CCD (d)


Image sensor technologies

Charge Transfer- Photo Sensor to Vertical CCD

Light

Charge (Electrons)

Photo Sensor

Charge (Electrons)

Gate Opens

Gate

Vertical CCD


Image sensor technologies

Charge Transfer

CCD

CCD

CCD

CCD

Charge

Charge

Charge

Charge

The transfer of charge in a CCD is similar to a bucket-brigade moving water


Image sensor technologies

Amplifier of CCD Image Sensor

Voltage Generated on Surface of FD

Horizontal CCD

Output

Output Gate

Amplifier

Gate

Gate

Gate

Micro Wire

Charge

Floating Diffusion (FD)


Basic mechanism of cmos image sensors

Basic Mechanism of CMOS Image Sensors


Image sensor technologies

CMOS Image Sensor

Photodiode Active-Pixel Architecture (APS)  

Actual Photodiode Active-Pixel Architecture  


Cmos image sensor

CMOS Image Sensor


Image sensor technologies

CMOS Image Sensor

Pixel (a)

Amplifier (y)

Photo Sensor (b)(Light-sensitive Region)

Light

Signal

ON

ON

ON

Charge

Pixel-select Switch (e)

Pixel Row (j)

Column Signal Wire(f)(Micro Wire)

Column-select Switch (g)

Column Circuit (h)

Row Signal Wire (i) (Micro Wire)

ON

Output


Image sensor technologies

Voltage Detection

Fig. A

When Charge is NOT Accumulated in Photo Sensor

Fig. B

When Charge is Accumulated in Photo Sensor

Surface Voltage to Amplifier

Surface Voltage to Amplifier

Surface Voltage

Light

Surface Voltage

0 V

0 V

Voltage

Voltage

Charge

High

Photo Sensor

Photo Sensor

High


Image sensor technologies

Voltage Detection

Fig. C

When Charge is NOT Accumulated in Photo Sensor

Fig. D

When Charge is Accumulated in Photo Sensor

Surface Voltage from Photo Sensor

Surface Voltage from Photo Sensor

Amplified Voltage

Amplified Voltage

0 V

0 V

V2

Current

Signal Voltage

V1

V1

Gate Lifts

High

Gate

High


Aps block diagram

APS Block Diagram


Ccd aps performance improvements

CCD & APS Performance Improvements


Image sensor technologies

CCD Image Sensor with 2-channel Horizontal CCDs

Photo Sensor (Light-sensitive Area)

Light

Pixel

Charge (Electrons)

Vertical CCD

Output

Amplifier 1

Horizontal CCD 1

Channel 1

Horizontal CCD 2

Channel 2

Amplifier 2


Image sensor technologies

CMOS Image Sensor with 3-channel Outputs

Photo Sensor (Light-sensitive Region)

Amplifier

Pixel

Light

Signal

ON

ON

ON

Charge

Pixel-select Switch

Column-select Switch

Output

Column Circuit

Column Signal Wire (Micro Wire)

ON

Channel 1

ON

Channel 2

Row Signal Wire (Micro Wire)

ON

Channel 3


Technologies used to improve performance of image sensors

Technologies Used to Improve Performance of Image Sensors


Image sensor technologies

Buried-type Photo Sensor

Conventional Photo Sensor

Free Electron

HAL

Free Electron

Signal Charge

Signal Charge


Image sensor technologies

HAD-type CMOS Image Sensor

Gate

Gate

Gate

Signal Wire

Poly-Si

Gate

Drain

Drain

Source

P+ (HAL)

P+

N

P+

N

N

N

P+

N

N

SiO2

P-type Si (Substrate)

Read-out Gate

FD Reset Gate

FD Reset Drain

Photo Sensor

Pixel-select Switch

Amplifier

Floating Diffusion (FD)


Micro condensing lens

Micro Condensing Lens


Micro condensing lens1

Micro Condensing Lens

On-chip

Micro-lens

CCD Sensor

Structure

Power HAD CCD

Hyper HAD CCD


Power had ex imager

On-Chip-Micro lens

On-Chip-Micro lens

Internal Lens

Photo-Shielding

film

Photo-Shielding

film

Poly Si

Poly Si

Sensor

V-register

Sensor

V-register

Fig.-1 Power HAD CCD Sensor Construction

Fig.-2 New CCD Sensor Construction

Power HAD EX Imager

Performance Improvement With New CCD construction

Thinner Insulation

Film

Improvement of Smear with thinner insulation membrane

Power HAD CCD camera :

-125dB (Typical)

Power HAD EX CCD camera  :

-140dB (Typical)


Pros and cons of image sensors

Pros and Cons of Image Sensors


Pros cons of imagers

Pros & Cons of Imagers

Feature Comparison


Pros cons of imagers1

Pros & Cons of Imagers

Performance Comparison


Pros cons of imagers2

Pros & Cons of Imagers

Winding Path of CMOS Development's


Image sensor technologies

Image Distortion with CMOS Camera

CMOS Camera


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