What is culture?. Everyone has a culture. It is learned (one is not born with it), and it shapes how we see others, the world and ourselves. Behavior is affected in large part by cultural beliefs and values.Culture is like an iceberg; some aspects are visible, others are beneath the surface. Inv
1. Culture CH 3
2. What is culture? Everyone has a culture. It is learned (one is not born with it), and it shapes how we see others, the world and ourselves.
Behavior is affected in large part by cultural beliefs and values.
Culture is like an iceberg; some aspects are visible, others are beneath the surface. Invisible aspects influence and cause the visible ones.
1. Material Culture: includes artifacts, art, architecture, and other tangible goods that people create and assign meaning.
2. Nonmaterial Culture: refers to mental blueprints that serve as guidelines for group behavior
3. Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Culture Shock refers to feelings of confusion and disorientation that occur when a person encounters a very different culture.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to one’s own cultural standards
Cultural Relativism occurs when we evaluate other cultures according to their standards and not ours.
The Relativist Fallacy is a false impression that views all cultural practices as being equally valid and worthy of respect.
EX: Trying to justify Nazi gas chambers, Apartheid in South Africa
4. Other Components of Culture Symbols are anything to which a group members assign meaning.
Language is a complex set of symbols with conventional meanings that people use for communications.
There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 spoken languages worldwide.
Body language is often used to reinforce spoken language and at other times is used independently
Beliefs are assertions about the nature of reality.
1. Many beliefs that are considered as “truths” are based on social agreement rather than objective reality.
5. Other Components (cont.) Norms are expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide the behavior of group members. Norms include taboos, mores, laws, and folkways.
Taboos are prohibition against behaviors that most members of a group consider to be so disgusting they are unthinkable.
Mores are very important norms that people consider essential for the proper working of society.
Laws are formal rules enacted and enforced by the state.
Folkways are informal rules and expectations that guide people’s every day lives.