The middle ages
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The Middle Ages. Objectives…. Identify chronologically when the Middle Ages began and what the periods primary characteristics entailed. Analyze the nature of Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire Define a “ power vacuum”. The Middle Ages.

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The middle ages

The Middle Ages


Objectives

Objectives…

  • Identify chronologically when the Middle Ages began and what the periods primary characteristics entailed.

  • Analyze the nature of Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire

  • Define a “power vacuum”


The middle ages1

The Middle Ages

  • Constituted by the years between Classical Antiquity and the Modern Era

    • End of antiquity = collapse of Roman Empire

    • The Renaissance ushered in the Modern Era.

    • Roughly 500 until 1500 AD

    • Also known as the Medieval Times


Early middle ages

Early Middle Ages

  • Also known as Dark Ages (500-1000 AD)

  • Scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans)

  • Rise of influence of barbarianswhen Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers


Power vacuum

Power Vacuum?


Power vacuum1

Power Vacuum

  • In political science and political history, the term power vacuum is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them.“

    • No identifiable central power or authority

    • Other forces will tend to "rush in" to fill the vacuum—armed militia or insurgents, military coup, warlord or dictator.


Lost empire

Lost Empire

  • When Rome fell, language—both reading and writing—art, law, technology, and culture begin to disappear

  • Barbarians continued to invade towns and cut off trade routes

  • With no army the people were left with no protection.


Life after rome

Life After Rome

  • Leads to a patchwork of small kingdoms, each individually governed by their own warrior kings and laws.

Me don’t read good 


What would life be like

What Would Life Be Like?

  • Historical Situation…

  • Your Task: Today you will complete four tasks in order to help you create a new kingdom. As you finish each task, bring them to me to get your next task…

  • What did this activity simulate?

    • Why did my grammar get progressively worse?

    • Why was the emphasis continually placed on safety & security?


The rise of the franks

The Rise of the Franks

  • Invading group from the North.

  • Claimed Gaul after the collapse of the western Roman empire

    • The origin present day France, and also the nation’s namesake


Frankish invasion of gaul

Frankish Invasion of Gaul


Questions from reading

Questions from Reading

  • Who was the first true King of the Franks?

    • Clovis

  • What was the name of his “empire”

    • Merovingian Empire

  • Why were the “longhaired” kings called “do nothings”?

    • Allowed the nobles to take control of the lands

  • What role did the Mayors of the Palace play?

    • The real power behind the throne


The middle ages

The Hammer

First True King


Charlemagne

Charlemagne

  • Who was he?

    • King of the Franks and eventual Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

    • He embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity.

    • Reigned 741 - 814 CE


Charlemagne charles the great

Charlemagne“Charles the Great”

  • Born April 2, 742, in Northern Europe

  • “By the sword & the cross” became master of Western Europe.

    • “Father of Europe”

  • Through his enlightened leadership, the roots of learning and order were restored to Europe


Charlemagne1

Charlemagne

  • 768, age 26, he and Carloman (brother) inherit kingdom of the Franks

  • 771 Carloman died, Charlemagne became sole ruler of kingdom

    • Franks falling back into barbarian ways, neglect education & religion

      • North: Saxons were still pagans

      • South: Roman Catholic church fighting to recover land confiscated by barbarian Lombard kingdom in central Italy

        • Europe in turmoil


Defeating barbarians

Defeating Barbarians

  • 772 he launched a 30-year military campaign to reunite Europe and bring order

    • Defeated Lombards (in present-day northern Italy)

    • The Avars (in modern-day Austria and Hungary)

    • Conquered Bavaria and the Slavs (Germany)

    • 782 (Massacre of Verden) Charlemagne slaughtered some 4,500 Saxons

      • Forced Saxons to convert to Christianity, declared that anyone who didn’t get baptized or follow other Christian traditions be put to death

      • HARSH!


Order to europe

Order to Europe

  • 802 Charlemagne undisputed ruler of Western Europe.

    • Realm encompassed France, Switzerland, Belgium, & Netherlands

    • Included half of present-day Italy and Germany, & parts of Austria, Spain.

  • Established central government over Western Europe, restoring unity of the old Roman Empire

  • Paved the way for the development of modern Europe


The carolinian renaissance

The Carolinian Renaissance

  • Charlemagne learned to read Latin and some Greek; did not master writing.

  • At meals, no jesters, listened to visiting scholars read from learned works.

  • Charlemagne believed that government should be for the benefit of the governed.

  • Tireless reformer; tried to improve people's lives.

  • He set up money standards to encourage commerce, urged better farming methods and worked to spread education and Christianity.


The middle ages

  • Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800, at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.


Place at aachen

Place at Aachen


After charlemagne s death

After Charlemagne’s Death

  • His son Louis the Pious inherits the throne

    • Very ineffectual

    • After his Louis’ death, three sons proceed to vie for power, weakening the empire

      • Charles the Bald

      • Louis the German

      • Lothair


Charles the bald louis the german lothair

Charles the Bald, Louis the German, Lothair


Treaty of verdun

Treaty of Verdun


The vikings

The Vikings

  • A group from Scandinavia in northern Europe.

  • The land there is often frozen over so very little food was available.

  • Eventually their population got so big they had to go south to find food – and they did not go peacefully!

  • Invading Vikings demolish the efforts of Charlemagne


Anarchy throughout europe

Anarchy Throughout Europe

  • The strong were fighting and taking what they could get and everyone else was cowering in fear

    • No laws or empire to protect the common man


Thomas hobbes described life in europe during the middle ages this way

Thomas Hobbes, described life in Europe During the Middle Ages this way:

The condition of man is a condition of war of everyone against everyone else…The life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”


The early low middle ages

The Early (Low) Middle Ages

  • The Early or Low Middle Ages (Dark Age) was a time of Germanic tribes sweeping across Europe, of Viking invasions, of small tribal kingdoms fighting war bands.

    • Chaotic & lawless

    • Typically the period from the fall of the Roman Empire until after the Viking Invasions throughout Europe


The high middle ages

The High Middle Ages

  • Rapidly increasing population of Europe, invigorates economy

  • Charlemagne onward, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasionsand became more socially and politically organized

    • First universities established in Bologna, Salerno, Paris and Modena

    • Vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated

    • Reintroduction of classical philosophers and writers leads to “scholasticism”

    • Gothic architectural projects completed


The tomb of king theodoric barbarian ruler over italy built before 526 c e ravenna italy

The Tomb of King Theodoric, barbarian ruler over Italy, built before 526 C.E. Ravenna, Italy.


Lincolnshire cathedral england c 1200

LincolnshireCathedral, England,c. 1200


Choir at canterbury cathedral note how tall it is

Choir at Canterbury Cathedral. Note how tall it is!


First page of the nowell codex the beowulf manuscript cotton vitellius a xv produced circa 800 ce

First page of the Nowell Codex (the Beowulf manuscript) Cotton VitelliusA.xv, produced circa 800 CE,


The middle ages

Gold-illuminated lettering for Psalm1:1.Created in the court school of Emperor Charlemagne, 9th century.


The middle ages

Unicorn Psalter, circa 1200 from France. Note the detail in the initial and the babuins or grotesques in the margins.


Move from an age of anglo saxon war chiefs and viking pirates

move from an age of Anglo-Saxon war chiefs and Viking pirates . . .

The “Sutton Hoo” helmet of an Anglo-Saxon cyning or thegn, dating to early 600, found near Suffolk, England.


To the glory of late feudal monarchy

To the glory of late feudalmonarchy

Statuary over Sarcophagus of King Henry IV and his wife, Joan of Navarre, from Canterbury Cathedral’s crypt.


Feudalism

Feudalism

  • A political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe.


The feudal system

The feudal system

  • Feudalism Structures Society

    • Approximately 850 to 950, feudalism emerges—political system based on land control

    • Simply put: One guy owns the land, another works on it.

    • Each group of people had specific jobs to complete.


The middle ages

Feudalism

The king was at

the top. He owned all of the land, but he needed support to keep his power.

MONARCH


The middle ages

Feudalism

Nobles pledged homage, agreed to pay taxes and send knights to fight for the king.

MONARCH

NOBLES

In exchange they received fiefs…or land grants


The middle ages

Feudalism

MONARCH

NOBLES

VASSALS & KNIGHTS

The nobles then gave land to vassals, aka knights, who agreed to fight for the noble (and by extension the king). A vassal is a person who holds land (a fief) from a feudal superior in return for homage and loyalty.


The middle ages

Feudalism

MONARCH

NOBLES

VASSALS & KNIGHTS

MERCHANTS, FARMERS, CRAFTSMENT


The middle ages

Feudalism

MONARCH

NOBLES

VASSALS & KNIGHTS

MERCHANTS, FARMERS, CRAFTSMEN

PEASANTS & SERFS


The middle ages

THE POPE & THE CHURCH

MONARCH

NOBLES

VASSALS & KNIGHTS

MERCHANTS, FARMERS, CRAFTSMENT

PEASANTS & SERFS


The middle ages

King

Nobles

Lords

protection

land (fiefs)

Knights

protection

labor (work)

Peasants


The middle ages

Imagineland

1. The King officially owns all of the land of the country. He usually builds a large castle in his capital city.

5. Taxes ultimately end up going to the king. Peasants work, knights protect, nobles collect, king gets rich.

4. Peasants are allowed to live on the land and build farms. They pay taxes to the nobles and can’t leave.

2. To get nobles to support him the king divides his land and puts nobles in charge of their own area.

3. The nobles divide their land and use that to pay knights who then protect the land and serve the king.


The middle ages

Why?

  • No Roman Empire means no Roman Army.

  • No army means no protection.

  • People willingly (usually…) gave up their land to be protected.

  • It was all about survival.


And so

And so…

  • People turned to feudalism for protection.

  • Landowners hired knights to protect the peasants who agreed to work for the landowners.

  • This further divided Europe.


Feudal social divisions

Feudal social divisions

  • Three social categories

    • those who fight: nobles and knights

    • those who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of the Church

    • those who work: peasants

  • Social class is usually inherited; majority of people are peasants

    • Most peasants are serfs—people lawfully bound to place of birth

    • Serfs aren’t slaves, but what they produce belongs to their lord


The lord s estate

The Lord’s Estate

  • The noble’s (lord) estate, a manor, has an economic system (manor system)

    • Serfs and free peasants maintain the lord’s estate, given grain as payment

    • The lord provides housing, farmland, protection from bandits


A self contained world

A Self-Contained World

  • The lord chose officials to run the manor

    • The seneschal looked after the nobles fiefs

      • Manager of the manor

    • The bailiff oversaw the lands and buildings of the manor, collected fines and rents and acted as accountants

    • Each manor had its own court of law

      • Courts gave out fines and punishments and discussed manor business


The manor

The Manor

  • Noble of the manor lived in a large wooden house or a castle.

  • A small villages of cottages would be nearby.

  • There was a church, a mill, a bread oven, and a wine press in each village.

  • Villages were surrounded by forests, meadows, pastures, and fields.


Cottages

Cottages

  • Cottages surrounded a village green.

    • Made of wood and dirt

    • Thatched roofs made with bundles of straw

    • One or two rooms

    • Slept on piles of straw on dirt floor

    • Stools and tables were the only furniture

    • At night, the animals also stayed in the cottage

    • Diseases and fleas rampant


Serfs

Serfs

  • Serfs and descendants owned by the noble

  • Could not move, own property, or marry without permission

  • Did not serve in army

  • Could buy freedom

  • If a serf ran away and was not found in one year s/he was free

  • Worked nobles land three days a week; rest of time worked own strips of land

  • Gave part of their crop to the noble

  • Had to pay to use mill, bread oven, & wine press.

  • Life expectancy approx 35 years


Fashions of the middle ages

Fashions of the Middle Ages


Food of the middle ages

Food of the Middle Ages


The middle ages

Feudalism Simulation!


Guilds

Guilds

  • Guilds allowed people in the same business to work together for common goals.

  • They helped support needy members, train new members, and standardized prices and the quality of goods.

  • They set prices and prevented outsiders from selling goods in town.

  • Set standards for their trade/craft


Guilds of the middle ages

Guilds of the Middle Ages

  • Apothecaries

  • Armourers & Brasiers

  • Bakers

  • Barbers

  • Basket makers

  • Blacksmiths

  • Bowyers (longbow makers)

  • Brewers

  • Broderers (embroiderers)

  • Butchers

  • Carpenters

  • Chandlers (candle makers)

  • Clothworkers

  • Cordwainers (workers leather)


Guilds of the middle ages1

Guilds of the Middle Ages

  • Curriers (dressers of tanned leather)

  • Cutlers

  • Dyers

  • Farriers (shoers of horses)

  • Fishmongers

  • Fletchers (arrow makers)

  • Girdlers (girdles and belts as clothing)

  • Goldsmiths

  • Loriners (stirrups and other harness for horses)

  • Masons

  • Mercers (general merchants)

  • Needlemakers

  • Plaisterers (plasterers)


Guilds of the middle ages2

Guilds of the Middle Ages

  • Plumbers

  • Poulters

  • Saddlers

  • Salters

  • Skinners

  • Tallow chandlers (Candle makers)

  • Upholders (upholsterers)

  • Vintners

  • Wax Chandlers ( candle makers)

  • Weavers

  • Wheelwrights

  • Woolmen (winders and packers of wool)


Joining a guild

Joining A Guild

  • Between 8 and 14, a boy who wanted to learn a certain trade became an apprentice.

  • He lived and worked in the home of a master of that trade for as long as 7 years.

  • Then he became a journeyman in which his work would be judged by guildedofficials to see if his work met the standards.

    • If it did then he would be let in the guild


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