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Why do we need to learn multicultural counseling?. Why do counselors need to know cultures?Do you think cultural issues are sensitive?Does the majority of Americans have the same culture? How about other ethnic groups?? Counselors cannot avoid addressing cultures.. Defining Culture and Multicul
Chapter 4 Counseling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society

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1. Chapter 4 Counseling in a Multicultural and Diverse Society

2. Why do we need to learn multicultural counseling? Why do counselors need to know cultures? Do you think cultural issues are sensitive? Does the majority of Americans have the same culture? How about other ethnic groups? ? Counselors cannot avoid addressing cultures. e.g., youth culture, older generation culture, GLBT culture, nuclear families, blended families, Southern Baptist, SES, etc. It is very important for counselors to self-examine their biases and stereotypes toward different cultural groups.e.g., youth culture, older generation culture, GLBT culture, nuclear families, blended families, Southern Baptist, SES, etc. It is very important for counselors to self-examine their biases and stereotypes toward different cultural groups.

3. Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling Culture ethnographic variables demographic variables status variables ethnographic variables: e.g., ethnicity, nationality, religion, language demographic variables: e.g., age, gender, place of residence status variables: e.g., social, economic, and educational background ethnographic variables: e.g., ethnicity, nationality, religion, language demographic variables: e.g., age, gender, place of residence status variables: e.g., social, economic, and educational background

4. Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling Culture any group of people who identify or associate with one another for some common purpose, need, or similarity of background Multicultural counseling counseling in which the counselor and client differ in terms of culture and/or worldview. Differ in terms of culture and worldviewDiffer in terms of culture and worldview

5. Defining Culture and Multicultural Counseling Two perspectives: Etic -------------------- Emic perspective perspective (culturally (culturally generalizable) specific) Etic perspective: - universal qualities that exist in counseling are culturally generalizable - criticized for not taking important cultural differences into account Emic perspective: counseling approaches must be designed to be culturally specificEtic perspective: - universal qualities that exist in counseling are culturally generalizable - criticized for not taking important cultural differences into account Emic perspective: counseling approaches must be designed to be culturally specific

6. History of Multicultural Counseling Before 1970, only 8.5% of the most frequently cited books were published. Gilbert Wrenn (1962) described the culturally encapsulated counselor. Culturally encapsulated counselor disregards cultural differences and works under the mistaken assumption that theories and techniques are equally applicable to all people.Culturally encapsulated counselor disregards cultural differences and works under the mistaken assumption that theories and techniques are equally applicable to all people.

7. History of Multicultural Counseling The Association for Non-white Concerns in Personnel and Guidance (ANWC) ? a division of the ACA ? was founded in 1972. The ANWC was later changed to the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD). The AMCD publishes the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. The AMCD sponsors conferences.

8. Difficulties in Multicultural Counseling Overculturalizing Language Nonverbal behaviors Racism Acculturation the process of cultural change as a result of the contact between two or more cultures Overculturalizing ? mistaking people?s reactions to poverty and discrimination for their cultural pattern Racism ? prejudice displayed in blatant or subtle ways due to recognized or perceived differences in the physical and psychological backgrounds of people Racism is a form of projection usually displayed out of fear or ignorance. Overculturalizing ? mistaking people?s reactions to poverty and discrimination for their cultural pattern Racism ? prejudice displayed in blatant or subtle ways due to recognized or perceived differences in the physical and psychological backgrounds of people Racism is a form of projection usually displayed out of fear or ignorance.

9. Issues in Multicultural Counseling The dominance of theories based on European/North American cultural values the value of individuals action-oriented approach to problem-solving the scientific method an emphasis on rigid time schedules

10. Issues in Multicultural Counseling Cultural sensitivity Guidelines for effective counseling across cultures: recognize their own values and beliefs aware of the cultural and generic qualities of counseling theories sociopolitical environment able to share the worldview of clients able to apply various counseling skills Cultural sensitivity ? awareness of differences in the worldviews between self and clients. Counselors recognize the values and beliefs they hold in regard to acceptable and desirable human behavior. They are able to integrate this understanding into appropriate feelings and behaviors. Counselors are aware of the cultural and generic qualities of counseling theories and traditions. No method of counseling is completely culture-free. Counselors understand the sociopolitical environment that has influenced the lives of members of minority groups. Persons are products of the milieus in which they live. Counselors are able to share the worldview of clients and do not question its legitimacy. Counselors are truly eclectic in counseling practice. They are able to use a wide variety of counseling skills and apply particular counseling techniques to specific lifestyles and experiences. Sociopolitical environment: e.g., the Affirmative Action, college entranceCultural sensitivity ? awareness of differences in the worldviews between self and clients. Counselors recognize the values and beliefs they hold in regard to acceptable and desirable human behavior. They are able to integrate this understanding into appropriate feelings and behaviors. Counselors are aware of the cultural and generic qualities of counseling theories and traditions. No method of counseling is completely culture-free. Counselors understand the sociopolitical environment that has influenced the lives of members of minority groups. Persons are products of the milieus in which they live. Counselors are able to share the worldview of clients and do not question its legitimacy. Counselors are truly eclectic in counseling practice. They are able to use a wide variety of counseling skills and apply particular counseling techniques to specific lifestyles and experiences. Sociopolitical environment: e.g., the Affirmative Action, college entrance

11. Issues in Multicultural Counseling Development and employment of counseling theories Cultural bias Integrating cultural awareness into training Explanations of existing theories and their applicability to certain populations and problems Cultural bias is present in majority and minority counselors.Cultural bias is present in majority and minority counselors.

12. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Between-group differences Within-group differences Uniqueness Each individual is unique. There are probably more within-group differences than between-group differences in counseling people from specific cultural traditions.Each individual is unique. There are probably more within-group differences than between-group differences in counseling people from specific cultural traditions.

13. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Five main cultural groups European Americans (69%) African Americans (13%) Hispanics/Latinos (13.5%) Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (4%) Native Americans (1%) [Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2003)]

15. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups European Americans Cultural heritages Relatively more homogeneous Worldview: values linear, analytical, empirical, task solutions individualism, autonomy, independence > group performance Cultural heritages: e.g., Sweden, Italy, France, England, Poland, Germany, Poland, Russia, Hungary, Austria Many people from Spain or from Spanish ancestry consider their heritage distinct from other Europeans in general. Cultural heritages: e.g., Sweden, Italy, France, England, Poland, Germany, Poland, Russia, Hungary, Austria Many people from Spain or from Spanish ancestry consider their heritage distinct from other Europeans in general.

16. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups African Americans Negative stereotypes Relinquish independence Unequal relationships Collective emphasis Negative stereotypes African Americans frequently perceive counseling as a process that requires the client to relinquish his/her independence. ? unwilling to voluntarily commit themselves to a counseling relationship the history of slavery in America and the common misdiagnosis of African Americans in mental health centers In historical times, the collective was the clan or tribe. Today, it is the family and those who live, work, or worship nearby.Negative stereotypes African Americans frequently perceive counseling as a process that requires the client to relinquish his/her independence. ? unwilling to voluntarily commit themselves to a counseling relationship the history of slavery in America and the common misdiagnosis of African Americans in mental health centers In historical times, the collective was the clan or tribe. Today, it is the family and those who live, work, or worship nearby.

17. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Hispanics/Latinos Heterogeneous people whose ancestors come from the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas May be reluctant to use counseling services May perceive psychological problems as physical problems May expect counselors to be directive ?Latino? describes the people of Spanish and Indian descent whose ancestors lived in areas of the Southwest US that were once a part of Mexico. Reluctant ? cultural tradition (e.g., pride) and cultural heritage (e.g., reliance on extended family ties); more practical reasons: distance to service agencies, inadequate transportation, a lack of health insurance, the absence of Spanish-speaking counselors ?Latino? describes the people of Spanish and Indian descent whose ancestors lived in areas of the Southwest US that were once a part of Mexico. Reluctant ? cultural tradition (e.g., pride) and cultural heritage (e.g., reliance on extended family ties); more practical reasons: distance to service agencies, inadequate transportation, a lack of health insurance, the absence of Spanish-speaking counselors

18. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (Asian Americans) Heterogeneous Model minority Religious traditions Psychosomatic symptoms are common May expect counselors to be directive History: Asian Americans have been denied the rights of citizenship, forbidden to own land, locked in concentration camps, maligned, mistreated, and massacred. Model minority ? hardworking, successful, not prone to mental or emotional disturbances Religious traditions: Buddhism, ConfucianismHistory: Asian Americans have been denied the rights of citizenship, forbidden to own land, locked in concentration camps, maligned, mistreated, and massacred. Model minority ? hardworking, successful, not prone to mental or emotional disturbances Religious traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism

19. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Native Americans 478 tribes recognized by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs plus another 52 tribes without official status Very diverse: 149 languages Value harmony with nature, cooperation, holism, present-concern, reliance on one?s extended family Historical influence Historical influence: strong feelings about the loss of ancestral lands, a desire for self-determination, conflicts with the values of mainstream American culture, and a confused self-image resulting from past stereotyping ? may view themselves as victimsHistorical influence: strong feelings about the loss of ancestral lands, a desire for self-determination, conflicts with the values of mainstream American culture, and a confused self-image resulting from past stereotyping ? may view themselves as victims

20. Counseling Considerations with Specific Cultural Groups Native Americans Existential approaches of counseling Acculturation Creative arts Storytelling Meet with tribal leaders and elders Extended family Creative arts do not require verbal disclosure. Creative arts do not require verbal disclosure.

21. Aged Populations The aged => 65 13% in 2000, 21% in 2030 Receiving less services Common problems - grief, loneliness - empty nest - financial problems

22. Aged Populations Counseling the Aged older people do not receive much attention from mental health providers because of: a lack of understanding the investment syndrome the irrational fear of aging Investment syndrome: some counselors feel their time and energy are better spent working with younger people who may eventually contribute to society Investment syndrome: some counselors feel their time and energy are better spent working with younger people who may eventually contribute to society

23. Aged Populations Approach Treat the aged as adults and with respect. Modify the attitudes of society. Counselors must become educators and advocates for change in societal attitudes if destructive age restrictions and stereotypes are to be overcome.Counselors must become educators and advocates for change in societal attitudes if destructive age restrictions and stereotypes are to be overcome.

24. Gender-Based Counseling Counseling Women Primary consumers of counseling Major concerns Concerns in counseling women Theories Sexism ? counterproductive Women?s issues: depression, eating disorders, sexual victimization, widowhood, multiple roles Some counselors still hold sex-role stereotypes of women Sexism is the belief that females should be treated on the basis of their sex without regard to other criteria, such as interests and abilities. e.g., limiting women?s access to certain professions such as nursingWomen?s issues: depression, eating disorders, sexual victimization, widowhood, multiple roles Some counselors still hold sex-role stereotypes of women Sexism is the belief that females should be treated on the basis of their sex without regard to other criteria, such as interests and abilities. e.g., limiting women?s access to certain professions such as nursing

25. Gender-Based Counseling Issues and theories of counseling women Feminist theory Emphasizes equality in the counseling relationship Emphasizes sociopolitical action

26. Gender-Based Counseling Counseling Men Traditional sex roles Internalizing emotions Less help-seeking Issues and theories Exploring feelings Interpersonal learning in groups

27. Counseling and Sexual Orientation Counseling with Gays/Lesbians/Bisexuals/ Transgenders (GLBT) Family and peer relations Isolation Coming out AIDS

28. Counseling and Spirituality Spirituality refers to a unique, personally meaningful experience of a transcendent dimension that is associated with wholeness and wellness. Examples Examples: religious belief, philosophical belief, meditation, prayer, Alcoholic AnonymousExamples: religious belief, philosophical belief, meditation, prayer, Alcoholic Anonymous


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