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C redit seminar. By Dr. Madhukar V 2004-30-04 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences CSK HPKV, Palampur 6 th August, 2005. Nutraceuticals dawn of a new era. What are nutraceuticals ?.

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Credit seminar

By

Dr. Madhukar

V 2004-30-04

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology

College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

CSK HPKV, Palampur

6th August, 2005


Nutraceuticalsdawn of a new era


What are nutraceuticals ?

  • A food that provides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease (Stephen De Felice, 1989)

  • Contraction of

    -nutrition and pharmaceutical.

  • Similar words

    - designer foods, functional foods,

    - genetically engineered foods

  • Taken in the form of

    -pills

    -capsule

    -powders and

    -tinctures.


History is repeating

2000 BChere eat this root

1200 ADthis root is heathen, say this prayer

1500 ADprayer are superstitious, drink this potion

1900 ADthe potion is snake oil, swallow this pill

1950 ADthis pill is ineffective, take this antibiotic

2000 ADthe antibiotic is synthetic, eat this root


Categories of nutraceuticals


Nutrients

  • Established nutritional functions

    - vitamins

    - minerals

    - amino acids

    - fatty acids

  • Antioxidants - cancer & c.v. diseases

    vitamin-E- Parkinson's disease

    - pancreatic cancer

    - asthma

    - skin cancer


  • Vit-E+beta-carotenes

    - atherosclerosis

  • Dehydroxyascorbicacid - Alzheimer's disease

  • Choline– fatty liver

  • L-arginine– angina


2.Herbals

Herbs or botanical products as extracts and concentrates.

  • Echinacea - cold & flu.

  • Kava– anxiety.

  • Gingko - dementia

    - claudication.

  • St John’s wort - depression


  • Phenolic compounds

  • Terpenoids

  • Sulfur compounds

  • Pigments

  • Natural antioxidants

  • Garlic, ginger, soybean,cabbage-highest anticancer properties.


  • Garlic - diallyldisulfides

    - diallylsulfides

    - quercetin

  • Tomato - kaempferol

    - chlorogenic acid

    - lycopene

  • Honey - antimicrobial

  • Green tea - immunomodulation

    reduced risk of cancer.


3.Dietary supplements

  • Ketogenic diets- seizure control.

  • Burgeon (soy flour + linseed oil)

    - breast cancer.

  • Edible mushrooms

    - immunomodulation

    - antitumor.


  • Zbar, nite-bite

    - sucrose + proteins + uncooked starch

  • Glucosamine /chondroitin sulfates

    - osteoarthritis

  • Dairy foods

  • Health drinks


Veterinary nutraceuticals

  • TEN COMMANDMENTS (John Walton):

    It must

  • improve performance effectively and economically.

  • have little therapeutic use.

  • not cause cross-resistance.

  • not involve in transfer of drug resistance.

  • not cause disturbance of gut normal flora.

  • not absorbed into edible tissues.

  • not be mutagenic or carcinogenic.

  • not permute salmonella shedding.

  • not give rise to environmental pollution, degradable.

  • non toxic to animal and human handlers.


Nutraceuticals for Pigs

  • Enzymes:

    - amylase, protease and lipase.

  • FOS: (Fructo-Oligosaccharide)

    - derivative of inulin.

    - lactobacilli.

  • MOS: (Mannose-Oligosaccharides)

    - attracts pathogenic bacteria.

  • Nucleotides

    - improves immunity

    -absorption of nutrients


Equine nutraceuticals

  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD)

    - antioxidant.

  • Dimethyl Glycine (DMG, pangamic acid)

    - increases phosphocreatine production in brain & muscle.

  • CoenzymeQ10 (ubiquinone)

    - powerful antioxidant.

    - heart diseases, high B.P and enhancement of immunity.


Pet nutraceuticals

  • Glucosamine and chondroitin

  • Echinacea

    -immunostimulant

  • Ginger

    - stomach problems

    - anti-inflammatory


Vitamin-c

- hip dysplasia

- urinary tract problems

- arthritis .

Milk thistle

- hepatitis.

Saint John’s wort

- viral infections

- neural disorders.

Gingko

- cognitive disorders


Cattle and buffalo

Turmeric, amahaldi, ashwagandha, adalsa and sitaphal.

Polyunsaturated oils

enhance reproductive efficiency

Bamboo leaves + ajwaine.

Retention of placenta

Marigold + alum

treatment of wound


Cardiovascular health

  • $70 billion globally every year

  • $3 billion in 2004 to research cardiovascular health in U.S.

  • Risk factors:

    - elevated cholesterol levels

    - high blood pressure

    - diabetes.


Nutraceutical Interventions

  • amenable to nutraceutical intervention.

  • nutraceuticals positively influence cardiovascular risk factors.

  • CholesterolReduction:

    - garlic (allicin and alliin)

    - fish oil (omega 3 fatty acid)

    - policosanol (plant waxes)


  • Theaflavins(Black tea):

  • - squalene epoxidase.

  • Soy protein:

  • - prevent reuptake of cholesterol.

  • PMFs (citrus ):

  • - cholesterol biosynthesis/absorption.

  • Tocotrienols:

  • - reduce level of HMG-CoA reductase.


2.Hypertension:

- Sesamin.

- Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA).

- Green tea catechins.

3. Diabetes:

  • c-reactive protein (diabetics)

  • vitamin C, vitamin-E,

  • omega 3-fatty acids e.g. fishoil.


Cancer prevention

  • Phytochemicals:

    - affect membrane structure and function.

    - signal transduction pathways regulating tumor growth and apoptosis.

    - immune function of host.

    - cholesterol metabolism.


  • Allyl sulfides (onions):

  • - eliminates toxic compounds.

  • Dithiolthiones (cabbage, turnips):

  • - detoxification.

  • Indoles (cruciferous vegetables):

  • - estrogen metabolism.


  • Isoflavones (soy foods):

    - multiple effects.

  • Lignans (rye):

    - anti-estrogenic.

  • Flavonoids (biological response modifiers):

    - quercetin (tomato, potato, onions).

    - kaempferol (kale and tomatoes).


  • Carotenoids:

    Beta-carotenes (lung cancer):

    -carrots, potatoes, red peppers and pumpkins.

    Lycopene (prostate cancer):

    - tomatoes.

    Lutein (macular degeneration):

    - leafy green vegetables.


Areas of concern

  • Safety and effectiveness:

    - nutraceuticals are not regulated by FDA.

    - only few has been studied rigorously.

    - in contrast prescription and over the counter drugs have been reviewed by FDA.

    - scientific studies are not designed for most.


  • Purity

    - nutraceuticals are not regulated for purity.

  • Standardization

    - each ingredients in a dose should be present in precise quantity in standard form.


Interaction with drugs

Nutraceuticals Affected drugs

  • Echinacea immunosuppressants

  • Garlic hypoglycemic drugs

    anticoagulants

  • Ginger anticoagulants


  • Ginseng Corticosteroids,

    opiods.

  • Milk thistle Saquinavir.

  • St.John’s wort Benzodiazepines,

    digoxin and warfarin


Conclusion

  • Destined to play important role in future therapeutic developments.

  • They will continue to appeal because of convenience to today’s lifestyle.

  • Genuine research is going on and many potential agents are identified.

  • Nutraceuticals promote overall health status in addition to providing protection against diseases.

  • Very soon they will find a prominent place in clinical practice in treatment of diseases


Thanks


LETFOODBE THY MEDICINE AND MEDICINE THY FOOD

Hippocrates 400 BC


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