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Quality for a Transforming Army. Presented to: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Quality Leadership Forum. Marc D. Saperstein U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command – Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center. 25 September 2002. Army Transformation

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Quality for a

Transforming Army

Presented to:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Quality Leadership Forum

Marc D. Saperstein

U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command –

Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center

25 September 2002


Transformation quality roadmap

Army Transformation

Reliability Improvement

Program (ATRIP)

Objective

Force

Transformation Quality Roadmap

Skilled Industrial

Base

Robust Designs &

High-Quality Products

RAM-D

Systems

Reduced Logistics

Footprint

Shortening the

Acquisition Life Cycle

Light Response w/ Heavy Lethality at

Reduced Life Cycle Cost


Quality in design dod 5000 2 r references
“Quality” in Design: DoD 5000.2-R References

System

Analysis

& Control

Mfg &

Production

Chapter 5:

Program Design

  • RiskManagement in:

  • Technologies

  • Manufacturing Capabilities

  • Industry Sources

Producibility Shall be a

Development Priority.

  • Early Activities

  • Design, Manufacturing Development & Test

  • Hardware & Software

  • Capable Processes

  • Control of Critical Processes

  • Performance Feedback

  • Corrective Action System

RAM

Quality

Support to the Defense Acquisition Management Framework


Appraisal &

Failure

(Reactive)

$Production &

Maintenance

Prevention

(Proactive)

$R&D

Quality Cause & Effect

Quality Engineering

Quality Assurance

Robustness

Systems

DFA/M

Calibration

DF Supply Chain

Inspection & Test

DMSMS

Statistical Techniques

Production

Streamlining

Funding

Planning

  • Set & Achieve Realistic UPC Targets

  • Meet Fielding Targets

  • Minimize ECPs/ECOs

  • Assure Smooth, Timely Transition to Production

    …. Programs On-time & Within Budget!!

Leadership

Commitment

Quality Management


Giqlp jacg advanced quality 1996

AMC

Membership

GIQLP/JACG Advanced Quality (1996)

  • Emphasized Prevention vs. Detection & Correction

  • Design & Manufacturing

  • Tools & Attributes

    • Integrated Product/Process Development (IPPD)

    • ID & Control of Key Characteristics

    • Design to Process Capability

    • Design for Assembly/Manufacturing (DFA/M)

    • Robust Design

    • Geometric Dimensioning an Tolerancing (GD&T)

    • Process Variation Reduction (PVR)

    • Control of Variation in the Measurement System

    • Root Cause, Closed Loop Corrective Action

    • Continuous Improvement (Processes and Products)

    • Deployment to Subcontractors

  • Enabling Practices

    • Adequate, Up-front Funding

    • Contract Award/Incentive Fee

“If DoD provides incentives for implementation of

the advanced commercial practices, … we believe it

can significantly improve quality, reduce costs of its

acquisition programs and apply savings to future

modernization efforts.”


Today s acquisition realities
Today’s Acquisition Realities

  • DoD Excellence

    • Performance Contracting

    • Supplier Empowerment

    • Use of COTS

  • Systems Contracting

  • Set-Asides and HUBZones

  • Monopolies/Oligopolies

  • Mergers & Acquisitions

  • Shrinking Market Shares

    • DMSMS


Army quality challenges
Army Quality Challenges

  • Risk-based/Business-based Implementation of Commercial Quality Practices

  • Sensitivity to “Acquisition Excellence” Principles

  • The Army needs to be an Educated Customer and Proactive Partner

    • Proficient in Related Competencies

    • Provide Detailed RFP/Contract Language Sections C (SOW/SOO), L (ITO) & M (Evaluation)

      • Basic Quality

      • Advanced Quality/Quality Engineering

      • Continuous Improvement Partnerships

    • Funding Profiles & Contract Incentives Consistent w/ Life Cycle Objectives


Status of army quality
Status of Army Quality

  • Subset of Systems Engineering/Industrial Operations at HQ

    • Resources Limited

    • Increasing Reliance Upon Sub-Commands

  • De-Centralization in Several Commodity Areas

    • Strained (but Improving) Intra-Army Quality Communication

    • Some Quality Professionals Managed by PEOs/PMs

    • Functional Integrity/Core Competencies in Jeopardy

  • Acquisition Community is Reorganizing


Quality for army materiel
Quality for Army Materiel

(Army Acquisition Executive)

Quality Engineering & Assurance

Program Quality Management

NOTE: THIS DEPICTION DOES NOT REFLECT ALL DA ORGANIZATIONS AND

IS ONLY AN ESTIMATE OF CERTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS.


Amc quality federation aqf
AMC Quality Federation (AQF)

  • What is it?

    • A seamless, integrated, virtual structure that leverages quality resources from all AMC organizations to support the Transformation of the Army

  • Why was it formed?

    • Provide AMC with a strong, cohesive and comprehensive quality voice

    • Posture the quality function to meet rigorous needs of Army Transformation

    • Create a business environment to share best practices and maintain core competencies

    • Leverage scarce quality resources

  • Similar to NASA Quality Leadership Forum


?

?

To focus on the development and execution of best quality practices

in support of our customers and industry partners

Tank, Automotive

& Armament Systems

Communications

& Electronics

Ammunition

Simulators &

Training Devices

Soldier Systems

Missiles &

Aviation

Biological &

Chemical Systems

AMC Quality Federation


Starting point the quality trident

INDEPENDENCE

Q

PROCESS OWNERSHIP

CORE COMPETENCIES

Product Verification

Acquisition Quality Assurance

Fielded Systems Quality Assurance

Quality/Reliability Engineering

Software Quality Engineering

Standardization

System Safety

Starting Point: The Quality “Trident”

  • Independence

    • Materiel Release

    • Safety

    • Test Readiness

    • Process Improvement

    • Performance Management

      • OSD Tri-Service Assessment

      • Chair SC7/WG13 – ISO 15939

        (Practical Software Measurement)

    • “Risk Facilitators”

  • Process Ownership

    • Quality in Contract Development, Award & Administration

    • Life Cycle Quality for Materiel Acquisition

    • Quality Information/Data Exchange

  • Core Competencies

    • Training

    • Performance Standards

    • Breeding Ground for “Q Think”


Q21

AQF Roadmap

Solution Set #1:

Internal Quality Management

(Improve Ourselves)

- Core Competencies

- Quality SPIs

- IDEs

Constraint:

Transformation

R

A

P

relevance

agility

pace

  • Solution Set #2:

  • Quality Supplier Management

  • (Improve our Suppliers)

  • - (CP)2 Integration

  • Gov’t & Commercial Partnerships

  • Use of Past Performance Info

  • Promote & Incentivize World-class Practices

ISO/AS/QS

CMMI

SIX SIGMA

LEAN


Quality corps

Corps

Quality Corps

ACTEDS

Funding

  • Uses the Acquisition Corps Model

  • Intense Focus on Life Cycle Quality

  • AQF Competencies include:

    • Acquisition Quality Assurance

    • Reliability/Quality Engineering

    • Software Quality Assurance

    • Product Verification

    • System Safety

    • Fielded Systems Quality Assurance

    • Standardization

Professional

Certifications

(Pub Law 107-107)


Quality improvement it s like building a house
Quality Improvement: It’s Like Building a House

  • ISO/AS: Quality Management Framework

    • Architectural Plans & Building Permits

  • Design for Six Sigma: Manufacturing Variability during Development

    • Builders Influence on Architectural Design

  • Six Sigma: System Assuring Requirements

    • Tools & Skilled Methodologies

  • Lean: System Assuring Efficiency

    • Sequence & Coordination

Management Commitment

Fact-Based Decisions

Continuous Improvement

Customer Focus

Concepts from paper by VSE Corp.


Capability maturity model integrated

CMMi House

Capability Maturity Model-Integrated

  • Framework to Aid in Enterprise-wide Process Improvement

  • Developed by Software Engineering Institute & Sponsored by DoD

  • Integrates Discipline-specific Models for Systems Engineering, Software Engineering & Acquisition

    • Software CMM has been used Extensively in the World-wide Commercial Software Sector for a Decade

  • Benefits Include:

    • Higher Quality Processes & Products

    • Greater Customer Satisfaction

  • CMMI within AMC:

    • TACOM Software Elements CMMI/SW-CMM Level 3 (Site Specific)

    • AMCOM Software Center SW-CMM Level 4

    • Investigating Status of Other Sub-Commands

  • Embraced by the Secretary of the Army


Continuous House

Process Improvement

2 Managed

CMMI-SE/SW/A Model

Level

Process Areas

Focus

Quality

Productivity

5 Optimizing

Organizational Innovation and Deployment

Causal Analysis and Resolution

Quantitative

Management

Organizational Process Performance

Quantitative Project Management

Quantitative Supplier Management

4 Quantitatively

Managed

Requirements Development

Technical Solution

Product Integration

Verification

Validation

Organizational Process Focus

Organizational Process Definition

Organizational Training Integrated Project Management

Risk Management

Decision Analysis and Resolution

Integrated Supplier Management

Process

Standardization

3 Defined

Requirements Management

Project Planning

Project Monitoring and Control

Supplier Selection and Monitoring

Measurement and Analysis

Process and Product Quality Assurance

Configuration Management

Basic

Project

Management

Risk

Rework

1 Initial


6 Houses

Six Sigma

  • Started by Motorola & GE in Early 80’s

    • Structured Approach for Continuous Improvement

    • Employs Proven Analytical Tools

    • Focused on Business Bottom Line: Q$SR

  • Embraced by Industry as a Process Improvement Tool

  • The Army has begun Six Sigma Implementation

    • TACOM (Including Depots) Implementing

    • Other Sub-Commands Gaining Interest

  • Many Suppliers have Embraced the Methodology – We are Teaming for Success!

    • Raytheon

    • General Dynamics

    • United Defense

  • Embraced by the Secretary of the Army


Typical six sigma benefits
Typical Six Sigma Benefits House

  • PAX-2A Explosive Production (Army-wide)

    • $290M Cost Avoidance (Based on Lab Testing – Not POM’d)

      • $30/Pound vs. $65/Pound

      • ~100% Yield vs. 30%

    • Large Scale Ramp-Up by 4QFY02

  • XM982 Excalibur/TCM Procurement Administrative Lead Time (PALT)

    • $12.1M Program Cost Avoidance

    • Combined & Compressed Army and International Procurements

      • 11-Month PALT vs. 24-Month PALT

  • 155MM, Projectile, M898 SADARM

    • 75% Reliability Growth in 15 months

    • $12.5M Production Cost Avoidance

    • $24.4M mm-Wave RADAR Improvements

  • 155MM, Projectile, M795

    • $2.5M Production Cost Avoidance

      • Reject Rate of 0.5% vs. 5.0%


Process improvement strategy
Process Improvement Strategy House

  • Army Focus on Life Cycle Risk Management and Reduced Production, Operations & Support Costs

  • Army Secretary Embraces Six Sigma

  • AMC Commander Embraces Lean

  • Systems have Similar Tool Kits & Methodology

  • Process Improvement Strategy:

    • Integrate Six Sigma (Capability Improvement) & Lean (Waste Reduction) into a Single Process Improvement Program … Army Lean/6s

    • Promote Pro-active Improvements using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

    • Deploy throughout AMC and its Supplier Base

    • Establish HQ Management


Army House

(CP)2

QSL

PPIMS

Best

Value

Commercial

ISO

QS/AS

6-Sigma

CMMI

Quality Supplier Management

  • Customer-Focused

  • Supplier-Sensitive

  • Risk-Based

  • Performance-Based

  • Objective

  • Quantitative

Q21

DoD/Federal

QSM = f(Quality System Management & Past Performance)


Amc contractor performance certification program cp 2
AMC Contractor Performance Certification Program, (CP) House2

  • AMC - Supplier Partnership Initiative

  • 2nd Party Assessment Program

  • ISO 9000:1994, Supplemented

  • Promotes World Class Quality Practices, Continuous Improvement & Customer Satisfaction

  • Pockets of Success

  • Changing Environment Mandates Evolution

    • Commercial Registration and Assessments

    • ISO 9000:2000, QS-9000/TS 16949, AS9100, TL9000, etc.

    • Army Risk-Based Business Model


Supplier quality in army past performance
Supplier Quality in HouseArmy Past Performance

  • Army Past Performance Information Management System (PPIMS) Feeds DoD Past Performance Automated Information System (PPAIS)

  • PPIMS Overview

    • Performance Assessment Reports (PARs)/Customer Report Cards

      • Required Annually & at Close-Out

    • System ($5M) & Non-System ($1M) Thresholds

    • Growing Database

    • Becoming an Important PPI Tool in Source Selection

    • May become a Useful Partnership Tool


Supplier Quality in Army Past Performance (Continued) House

  • PPIMS Rating Elements (Systems Only)

    • Schedule, Cost Control, Management, Other

    • Technical (Quality of Product)

      • Product Performance, Systems Engineering, Software Engineering, Logistics Support/ Sustainment, Other

      • Product Assurance

        • Quality Objectives (e.g., producibility, reliability, maintainability, inspectability, testability)

        • Control of Manufacturing Processes (e.g., material control, shop floor planning & control, status & control, factory floor design, factory performance)


Use of commercial customer satisfaction ratings
Use of Commercial Customer Satisfaction Ratings House

  • Current Army Supplier Management through DCMA RAMP, Partnerships and use of PPI

  • Customer Satisfaction Ratings often Play a Role in Commercial Buying

  • J.D. Power provides Customer Ratings for several Sectors (Automotive, Services Consulting, Energy/Communications, Travel, Finance & Home Building)

  • Army & DCMA to meet with J.D. Power to Identify Opportunities for Partnerships and Resource Leveraging


Army Reliability & Mission Assurance House

  • Army Transformation Reliability Improvement Program (ATRIP) to be Formally Initiated by the Army Acquisition Executive and AMC CG

  • ATRIP to include:

    • RMS Leadership Team - Clearinghouse for the Army/DoD and Knowledge Base for all RMS Innovations for Army/Industry Applications

    • Assessment Team – Assesses RMS Capabilities and Competencies of Contractors, Government Agencies, etc., to include Process Assessment of Programs

    • Deployment Team – Deploys State-of-the-Art Tools to all Programs and Facilitates or Conducts Program Technical Activities

    • Industry Liaison Team – Works with Industry, Academia and Professional Societies to assure the US Design Culture Changes to an RMS Focus


Army nasa partnership for reliability mission assurance
Army-NASA Partnership for Reliability & Mission Assurance House

  • Joint NASA-Army Relationship Initiated after 2002 CQSDI

  • Mutual Ultra-Reliability Initiatives Discussed

  • Areas of focus:

    • Cultural Change Process for Designing-in Very High Reliability

    • Probabilistic Design using Physics-based Tools

    • Probabilistic Risk Assessment Methodologies

    • Combining Deterministic, Statistical and Probabilistic approaches in RMS Design Growth

    • Single-Shot Reliability Methods and Applications

    • Accelerated Aging and Predictive Model development

  • Need to Re-establish Contact with NASA RMS Activities


Other army nasa partnerships benchmarking
Other Army-NASA Partnerships/Benchmarking House

  • Supplier Risk Management

    • Including DCMA

  • Core Competencies for Tomorrow’s Quality Workforce

  • Procurement Contract Clauses

  • Criteria for Receiving Inspection

  • Soldering Requirements

  • Army Participation w/ NASA EEE Parts Group

  • Error Prevention

  • Supplier Quality Partnerships

  • NASA participation in Army (CP)2


Take a ways
Take-a-Ways House

  • Quality Plays an Important Role in the Army’s Transformation

  • Quality Investments are Needed

  • Quality must be Promoted … Constantly

  • Army & Industry Leadership is Critical for Quality Success

  • Army Partnerships with Gov’t & Industry assures Maximum Quality ROI

    • NASA

    • DCMA

    • MDA?


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