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VYTP Virginia Youth Tobacco Project. Securing the health of Virginia’s youth through science. VYTP Virginia Youth Tobacco Project. Report to The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation Board of Trustees Research Committee 18 March 2003. VIRGINIA YOUTH TOBACCO PROJECT.

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Vytp virginia youth tobacco project

VYTPVirginia Youth Tobacco Project

Securing the health

of Virginia’s youth

through science


Vytp virginia youth tobacco project1

VYTPVirginia Youth Tobacco Project

Report to

The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation

Board of Trustees

Research Committee

18 March 2003


Virginia youth tobacco project

VIRGINIA YOUTHTOBACCO PROJECT

COALITION BUILDING

Robert L. Balster, PhD


Goals
Goals

  • Build statewide trans-disciplinary program of research on causes and prevention of youth tobacco use

  • Attract faculty scholars to work on problems of youth smoking

  • Use VTSF funding as base for attracting additional outside funding for youth tobacco research in Virginia


Implementation methods
Implementation Methods

  • Solicited input from members of the Virginia Research Consortium (VPRs)

  • Utilized our knowledge of tobacco experts in Virginia

  • Identified a contact individual at each institution to be included in the first round

  • Obtained proposals from these project PIs

  • Funded four subcontracts in August 2002

  • Hired project director (Randy Koch) in February 2003


Vytp coalition current components
VYTP Coalition:Current Components

  • GMU (Robert Smith, PI)

  • JMU (Steve Evans, PI)

  • UVA (Richard Bonnie, PI)

  • Virginia Tech (Peggy Meszaros, PI)

  • VCU (Roy Pickens and Bob Balster, PIs)


Gmu component robert smith pi animal model of adolescent nicotine effects
GMU Component: Robert Smith, PIAnimal Model of Adolescent Nicotine Effects

  • Does peri-adolescent nicotine exposure cause lasting cognitive changes?

  • Does peri-adolescent nicotine contribute to increased effort to self administer cocaine?

  • How does peri-adolescent nicotine affect gene expression, evaluating all genes?

    Received separate funding from VTSF


Jmu component steven evans pi tobacco prevention research center
JMU Component: Steven Evans, PITobacco Prevention Research Center

  • Subcontract with VCU supports three separate projects that address risk factors and develop interventions for preventing and stopping tobacco use

    • Youth with ADHD (Steven Evans)

    • Dieting behavior & weight concerns among adolescents (Monica Reiss-Bergan)

    • Smoking cessation using alternative and complimentary health practices (Cheryl Talley & Charles Lockett)

  • Also received separate funding from VTSF for clinical trial work


Uva component richard bonnie pi youth centered tobacco policy research
UVA Component: Richard Bonnie, PIYouth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

  • Assembled investigative team

    • Richard Bonnie - health policy and ethics

    • Michael Moore – health economics

    • Pam Kulbock – adolescent health

    • Marian Moore – marketing and communications

    • Gerald Clore – social psychology

    • Victor Bovbjerg – epidemiology

    • Ruth Gaare Bernheim – policy studies

  • Established bi-weekly tobacco research colloquium


Uva component youth centered tobacco policy research
UVA ComponentYouth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

  • Projects Underway

    • Econometric studies of effects of policy interventions on dynamics of youth smoking and on low birthweight

    • Study of deterrent effect of youth access restrictions and their enforcement on retailers

    • Analysis of NAAG MSA Enforcement


Uva component youth centered tobacco policy research1
UVA ComponentYouth-Centered Tobacco Policy Research

  • Projects in conception and development

    • Emotional reactions to tobacco advertising and counter-advertising

    • Relationship between attributions and cessation outcomes

    • Effects of threatened sanctions for underage tobacco and alcohol use

    • Conceptual and operational development of policy-relevant influences on non-smoking behavior by young teens


Virginia tech component peggy meszaros pi adolescent female smoking
Virginia Tech Component: Peggy Meszaros, PIAdolescent Female Smoking

  • Secondary analysis of data on Virginia youth from two surveys

  • Identify risk and protective factors

  • Evaluate quitting strategies for female smokers

  • Disseminate information on effective interventions


Virginia youth tobacco project1

VIRGINIA YOUTHTOBACCO PROJECT

INTEGRATED

RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

AT VCU

Roy W. Pickens, PhD


Susceptibility to nicotine dependence a complex developmental process
Susceptibility to Nicotine Dependence: A Complex Developmental Process

  • Varies with inherited characteristics of individuals

  • Varies with the age of users

  • Depends to some extent on environmental influences, from parents, peers, and the media

  • Manifested in various stages of use behavior


Stages of development in adolescent smoking behavior points of focus for research and intervention
Stages of Development in Adolescent Smoking Behavior: Points of Focus for Research and Intervention

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5

CONTEMPLATING

TRYING

EXPERIMENTING

Relative Numbers of

Adolescents/Stage*

USING

REGULARLY

USING

HEAVILY

Increasing Risk of Nicotine Dependency

* Estimates, based on CDC, “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among High School Students – United States, 1991-2001,” MMRW 51(19).


Current vcu research project themes
Current VCU Research of Focus for Research and InterventionProject Themes

  • Genetic Influence over Tobacco Use in Adolescents

  • How These Genetic Influences are Expressed in Nicotine Pharmacology

  • Clinical Trials in Preventing Adolescents’ Initial Tobacco Use from Progressing to Nicotine Dependency

  • Evaluation of Community- and School-Based Youth Anti-Tobacco Programs


Smoking is highly heritable
Smoking is Highly Heritable of Focus for Research and Intervention

Non-shared Environment

Shared Environment

Shared Environment

Genes

Genes

Non-shared Environment

Smoking Initiation

Smoking Persistence

Data presented include females only; males similar.


Approaches to the study of genetic influence over tobacco use and nicotine dependency
Approaches to the Study of Genetic Influence over Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependency

  • Genetic Epidemiology: twin studies to determine the role of genetic and environmental influences at each stage of tobacco use

  • Gene Mapping: the use of epidemiological data to identify suspect chromosomal regions

  • Candidate Gene Studies: identification of genes in these chromosomal regions suspected to be associated with tobacco use

  • Gene Activation Studies: laboratory investigation of gene expression using animal models


Project 1 genetic epidemiology genetic factors in the transition through smoking stages
Project 1. Genetic Epidemiology: Genetic Factors in the Transition Through Smoking Stages

  • Donna Miles, PhD (PI)

  • Roy Pickens, PhD

  • Lindon Eaves, PhD DSc

  • Judy Silberg, PhD


Goals1
Goals Transition Through Smoking Stages

  • Examine genetic and environmental factors that play a role in the transition between smoking stages

  • Identify common (shared) and unique genetic and environmental influences at each stage of smoking


Twin research
Twin Research Transition Through Smoking Stages


Longitudinal twin study
Longitudinal Twin Study Transition Through Smoking Stages

  • At VCU we maintain large twin registries, under the management of the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR)

  • We are now conducting an adolescent behavioral-development study on 1412 twin pairs

  • Subjects first interviewed in adolescence (ages 8-16 years old)

  • Currently re-interviewing these twins, who are now in young adulthood (ages 20-28 years)


Longitudinal Twin Study: Progress to Date Transition Through Smoking Stages

  • Secured MATR approval

  • Secured IRB approval

  • Obtained NIH Certificate of Confidentiality

  • Developed telephone interview, which uses Optiscan technology

  • Completed hiring and training telephone interviewers

  • Conducted preliminary data analysis on adolescent sample


Tobacco Use among Twins Transition Through Smoking Stages

# twins

ages

Wave I

Current study

(completed)

(expected)


Future directions in twin research at vcu
Future Directions in Twin Research at VCU Transition Through Smoking Stages

  • December 2002, submitted NIH grant application entitled “Child Psychopathology-Adult SUD Longitudinal Twin Study”

  • Extends work begun with VTSF funding

  • Based on methods used in VTSF-funded project

  • 4 year project

  • Total cost, $2,003,614


Project 2. Gene Mapping and the Search for Candidate Genes: What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence?

  • Kenneth Kendler, MD (PI)

  • Xiangning Chen, PhD


Goals2
Goals What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence

  • Identify genetic loci related to adolescent tobacco use, through gene association studies

  • Investigators have previously identified chromosomal regions associated with tobacco use in adults

  • Are these same regions associated with smoking initiation and dependence in adolescents?


Genome scan of adult smokers
Genome Scan of Adult Smokers What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence


Progress in genetic mapping and candidate gene project
Progress in Genetic Mapping and Candidate Gene Project What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence

  • Completed analysis of about 2/3 of chromosomal data from samples of adolescents in Christchurch, New Zealand and Richmond, Virginia

  • Identified several candidate genes that may be involved in susceptibility to tobacco-use initiation and nicotine dependency

  • Established collaboration with researchers in pharmacology to analyze candidate gene expression in laboratory animals


Project 3 gene expression in adolescents
Project 3. Gene Expression in Adolescents What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence

  • Billy Martin, PhD (PI)

  • Imad Damaj, PhD

  • Michael Miles, PhD

  • Jenny Wiley, PhD


Goal What gene groups are involved in nicotine dependence

  • Determine the mechanisms by which gene expression influences adolescent susceptibility to nicotine


Nicotine sensitivity dependence and metabolism in adolescent mice
Nicotine Sensitivity, Dependence, and Metabolism in Adolescent Mice

Genetic Influences

Acute Sensitivity

Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics

Tolerance & Dependence


Models for acute sensitivity to nicotine
Models for Acute Sensitivity Adolescent Miceto Nicotine

In Vivo

Effects

In Vitro

Effects

Body Temperature

Locomotor

Activity

Analgesia

3H-Nicotine

Binding:

α4β2 Subtype

3H-MLA

Binding:

α7 Subtype

Seizures

Anxiolytic Effect

Nicotinic Antagonists


Assessing nicotine dependence liability
Assessing Nicotine Dependence Liability Adolescent Mice

Physical

Dependence

Positive

Reinforcement

Tolerance

Somatic & Affective Withdrawal

Signs

Acute

Chronic

Conditioned

Place-Preference


Enzymes for Nicotine Metabolism Differ in Early Adolescent and Young Adult Mice –Sensitivity to Nicotine is Likely Age Dependent

<35 day 56 day

Early

Adolescent

Young Adult


Determining the genetic and bio behavioral bases for adolescent responses to nicotine
Determining the Genetic and and Young Adult Mice –Bio-behavioral Bases forAdolescent Responses to Nicotine

  • Collaboration between Projects 2 & 3: NIH Center Grant proposal now in development to tie together human and animal research

  • Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) methodology

  • Search for genes that determine age and stage differences in sensitivity, dependence, and metabolism


Project 4 preventing initial tobacco use from progressing to nicotine dependency
Project 4. Preventing Initial Tobacco Use from Progressing to Nicotine Dependency

  • Thomas Eissenberg, PhD (PI)

  • Deborah Haller, PhD

  • Michelle Acosta, PhD


Goals3
Goals to Nicotine Dependency

  • Understand in detail the stages of youth smoking behavior, through clinical laboratory assessment of individual adolescents’ responses to smoking

  • Using clinical-assessment and follow-up interview data, test various interventions for their effectiveness in preventing adolescent progression to nicotine dependency


Subjects
Subjects to Nicotine Dependency

  • Adolescent smokers: 12-18 years of age

    • Stage 3 (experimenting) smokers: users who report smoking more than 1 cigarette per month but less than 1 per day

    • Stage 4 (regular) smokers: users who report smoking more than 1 but less than 10 cigarettes per day


Clinical assessment testing adolescents responses to smoking
Clinical Assessment: Testing Adolescents’ Responses to Smoking

  • Physiological measurements, before and after one cigarette

    • heart rate

    • breath CO

    • saliva cotinine (nicotine metabolite)

    • saliva cortisol (stress hormone)

    • puff topography

  • Craving and withdrawal questionnaires, before and after one cigarette


Clinical intervention testing various means to prevent adolescents from progressing to dependency
Clinical Intervention: Testing Various Means to Prevent Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Compare the success rates of different intervention modes in preventing subjects’ stage progression after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months

  • Intervention 1: Motivational interviews, providing subjects with personalized information and clinical-assessment feedback on the consequences of smoking

  • Intervention 2: Anti-tobacco video material

  • Intervention 3: Anti-tobacco print material


Progress in clinical trials project
Progress in Clinical Trials Project Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • IRB approval of protocol has been granted

  • Clinical assessments pilot tested

  • Interventions prepared and pilot tested

  • Subject recruitment to begin in April 2003


Project 5 youth tobacco evaluation project ytep

Project 5. Youth Tobacco Evaluation Project (YTEP) Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

Project Team:

Ilene Speizer, Brian Smith, Diane Baer Wilson, Melanie Bean, Karen Mitchell, Samy Uguy, Panumas Assavarakpreecha, Ramesh Ramakrishnan, Joyce Phillips, and Elizabeth Fries (PI)


Objectives of ytep
Objectives of YTEP Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Design a comprehensive evaluation of the 109 youth tobacco prevention programs funded by the Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation

  • Train grantees to implement appropriate evaluation components for their programs

  • Provide evaluation assistance for grantees

  • Provide analysis and dissemination of findings


Single session programs Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

Multiple session programs


Overall evaluation design
Overall Evaluation Design Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Process Evaluation

    • All programs

      • Session logs – content and delivery

      • Instructor survey – acceptability of program to instructors and participants

    • Pre K – 3rd grades: Parent survey – determine if kids understood and discussed program

    • 4th & 5th grades: Brief participant survey – perspectives on content, delivery, and appropriateness

    • Parent and family programs: Participant survey– content, delivery, and appropriateness


Overall evaluation design cont
Overall Evaluation Design, cont. Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Outcome Evaluation

    • 6th – 12th grades (76 of 109 grantees doing outcome evaluation)

      • Pre-test survey: obtain baseline tobacco use

      • Post-test survey: examine changes between pre- and post-tests

      • Parental notification prior to 1st survey

        • No identifying information kept on record

        • Match pre- and post-tests with anonymous linking scheme

        • Participants complete survey and place in an envelope and seal envelope


Design of outcome evaluation grades 6 to 12
Design of Outcome Evaluation Adolescents from Progressing to DependencyGrades 6 to 12

Pre-test

Post-test

1-year

Follow-up

Funded

Program

Note: Given limitations of pre-post design, where ever possible we will collect 1 year follow-up. All data are linked due to sampling/generalizability limitations. Grantees receiving multiple years of funding will also be followed for 2-6 years depending on the age of the child.


Framework outcome questionnaire development
Framework: Outcome Questionnaire Development Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • PERSONAL

  • Knowledge of consequences

  • Functional meanings

  • Subjective expected utility

  • SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC

  • Age

  • Low SES

  • Developmental stage

  • Gender

  • Self esteem

  • Self efficacy

  • Self image

  • ENVIRONMENTAL

  • Accessibility

  • Advertising

SMOKING STAGE

Preparatory

Trying

Experimental

Regular Use

Addiction

  • Personality

  • Psychological well-being

  • Parental use

  • Sibling use

  • Parental supervision and strictness

  • BEHAVIORAL

  • Academic achievement

  • Participation in sport & healthy behaviors

  • Peer use

  • Social bonding

  • Normative expectations

  • Peer groups

  • Other adv. behaviors (risk-taking)

  • Behavioral skills


Framework outcome questionnaire development1
Framework: Outcome Questionnaire Development Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

Life Skills Training

Tar Wars

Teens Against Tobacco Use

Get Real About Tobacco

Here’s Looking at You

SMART Leaders

Al’s Pals

Smoggy and Claire

Media Sharp

Anti Tobacco Media Blitz

Too Good for Drugs

Smoke Free, That’s Me

  • PERSONAL

  • Knowledge of consequences

  • Functional meanings

  • Subjective expected utility

  • SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC

  • Age

  • Low SES

  • Developmental stage

  • Gender

  • Self esteem

  • Self efficacy

  • Self image

  • ENVIRONMENTAL

  • Accessibility

  • Advertising

SMOKING STAGE

Preparatory

Trying

Experimental

Regular Use

Addiction

Life Skills Training

  • Personality

  • Psychological well-being

  • Parental use

  • Sibling use

  • Parental supervision and strictness

Too Good for Drugs

Preparing for Drug Free Years

  • BEHAVIORAL

  • Academic achievement

  • Participation in sport & healthy behaviors

NOT

END

Strengthening Families

Skills for adolescents

Teens Against Tobacco Use

Positive Action

NOT (w/ smokers)

Get Real About Tobacco

  • Peer use

  • Social bonding

  • Normative expectations

  • Peer groups

  • Other adv. behaviors (risk-taking)

Here’s Looking at You

SMART Leaders

Too Good for Drugs

  • Behavioral skills


Characteristics of baseline sample n 10 008
Characteristics of Baseline Sample (N=10,008) Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Characteristics of baseline sample n 10 0081
Characteristics of Baseline Sample (N=10,008) Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Characteristics of baseline sample n 10 0082
Characteristics of Baseline Sample (N=10,008) Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Number of agencies with participating youth by region
Number of Agencies with Participating Youth, by Region Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Compendium programs
Compendium Programs Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Smoking experience and use
Smoking Experience and Use Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Smokeless tobacco use among male youth
Smokeless Tobacco Use among Male Youth Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency


Upcoming activities
Upcoming Activities Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Collect, clean, and code post-test data

  • Complete coding of process evaluation data

  • Evaluate the first round of funding by comparing pre-test to post-test results as they relate to program exposure

  • Disseminate results, to VTSF affiliates, and to the research and evaluation community


Virginia youth tobacco project2

VIRGINIA YOUTH Adolescents from Progressing to DependencyTOBACCO PROJECT

COALITION BUILDING

Robert L. Balster, PhD


Future directions for the vytp coalition
Future Directions Adolescents from Progressing to Dependencyfor the VYTP Coalition

  • Statewide Conference on Addiction and Youth

    • Bring in national leaders in addiction and prevention research

    • Invite presentations from Virginia participants

    • Arrange suitable public and media participation


Future directions for the vytp coalition1
Future Directions Adolescents from Progressing to Dependencyfor the VYTP Coalition

  • Expand exchange visits among coalition members, and promote other collaborative activities

  • Identify and fund other components from the subcontracts (e.g. William and Mary)

  • Facilitate direct VTSF applications for coalition members

  • Small Grants Program

  • Faculty Scholars Program

    • Existing faculty

    • Mentoring component


The vytp vision
The VYTP Vision Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Building a first-class, tobacco-research

    “Institute without Walls” at Virginia universities

  • What are the requirements to realize this vision?

    • Continuing, multiyear funding commitments from Virginia’s master settlement agreement

    • Strategic partnerships among VPs for Research at Virginia schools, making tobacco research a priority

    • Concerted efforts among our faculty, both within and between institutions, to collaborate on research and grant-seeking

    • Creative trans-disciplinary thinking and action, to translate the findings of basic and applied science into improved tobacco-use prevention programs


Vytp virginia youth tobacco project2

VYTP Adolescents from Progressing to DependencyVirginia Youth Tobacco Project

Securing the health

of Virginia’s youth

through science


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Breland, A.B., Acosta M.C., and Eissenberg, T. (submitted for publication) Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and Potential Reduced Exposure Products for Smokers: A Preliminary Evaluation of Advance™.

  • Breland, A.B., Buchhalter, A.R., Evans, S.E., and Eissenberg, T. (2002) Evaluating acute effects of potential reduced exposure products for smokers: clinical laboratory methodology. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 4 (Suppl 2): S131-S140.

  • Breland, A.B., Evans, S.E., Buchhalter, A.R., and Eissenberg, T. (2002) Acute effects of AdvanceTM: a potential reduced exposure product for smokers. Tobacco Control. 11:376-378.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations1
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Carroll, F.I., Lee, J.R., Navarro, H.A., Brieaddy, L.E., Abraham, P., Damaj, M.I., and Martin, B.R.: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, and antinociceptive properties of 2-exo-2-(2’-substituted-3’-phenyl-5’-pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Savannah, GA, 2002.

  • Carroll, F.I., Lee, J.R., Navarro, H.A., Ma, W., Brieaddy, L.E., Abraham, P., Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. (2002) Synthesis, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding, and antinociceptive properties of 2-exo-2-(2',3'-disubstituted 5'- pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes: epibatidine analogues. J Med Chem 45:4755-4761.

  • Damaj, M.I. Activation of neuronal calcium calmoduline-kinase II after acute nicotine: behavioral and genetic approaches. Society of Neurosciences, Orlando, Fl, 2002.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations2
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Damaj, M.I. Neurobiology of nicotine dependence. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Savannah, GA, 2002.

  • Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Effects of nicotine and nicotinic agonists in a neuropathic pain model. World Congress on Pain, San Diego, CA, 2002

  • Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Differential involvement of calcium calmoduline-kinase II in nicotine’s pharmacological effects in mice. College on Problems of Drug Dependence, June, 2002.

  • Damaj, M.I. and Martin, B.R. Effect of (-)-menthol on nicotine’s pharmacological effects in mice. Conference on Menthol Cigarettes, Atlanta, GA, 2002.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations3
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Dukat, M., Damaj, I.M., Young, R., Vann, R., Collins, A.C., Marks, M.J., Martin, B.R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) Functional diversity among 5-substituted nicotine analogs; in vitro and in vivo investigations. Eur J Pharmacol 435:171-180.

  • Dukat, M., El-Zahabi, M., Ferretti, G., Damaj, M.I., Martin, B.R., Young, R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) (-)6-n-Propylnicotine antagonizes the antinociceptive effects of (-)nicotine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:3005-3007.

  • Eissenberg, T. (submitted for publication) Measuring the emergence of tobacco dependence: the contribution of negative reinforcement models.

  • Eissenberg, T. (2002). Progress in nicotine and tobacco research. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 4:355-362.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations4
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Eissenberg, T., and Balster, R.L. (2000). Initial tobacco use episodes in adolescents: current knowledge, future directions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 59 (Suppl 1):S41-S60.

  • Ferretti, G., Dukat, M., Giannella, M., Piergentili, A., Pigini, M., Quaglia, W., Damaj, M.I., Martin, B.R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) Homoazanicotine: a structure-affinity study for nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor binding. J Med Chem 45:4724-4731.

  • Fonck, C., Nashmi, R., Deshpande, P., Damaj, M. I., Marks, M. J., Schwarz, J., Collins, A. C., Labarca, C., and Lester, H.A. (in press).  Increased sensitivity to agonist-induced seizures, Straub Tail, and hippocampal theta rhythm, in knock-in mice carrying hypersensitive α4 nicotinic receptors. J Neurosci, 2003.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations5
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Haller, D.L., Miles, D.R., and Cropsey, K.L. (submitted for publication) Smoking Stage of Change Influences Retention in Smoke-Free Residential Treatment Program for Women. 

  • Hamilton, D.C.P., Acosta, M., Buchhalter, A.R., and Eissenberg, T. Urine Cotinine as an Index of Smoking Status: Comparison of GC/MS with Immunoassay Test Strips. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, February 2003.

  • Houtsmuller, E.J., Fant, R.V., Eissenberg, T., Henningfield, J.E., and Stitzer M.L. (2002). Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 72:559-568.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations6
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Lanni, S.M., Jansson, L., Miles, D.R., Raiford, K. and Svikis, D.S. Impact of perinatal tobacco and drug use on neonatal outcomes. Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, New Orleans, LA, January 2002.

  • Lee, M., Dukat, M., Liao, L., Flammia, D., Damaj, M.I., Martin, B.R. and Glennon, R.A. (2002) A comparison of the binding of three series of nicotinic ligands. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:1989-1992.

  • Martin, B.R., Lukas, R.J., Eaton, B., Carroll, F.I., Navarro, H.A., and Damaj, M.I. Evidence that bupropion’s pharmacological effects are primarily mediated via conversion to its 2S,3S-hydroxy metabolite. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, February, 2003.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations7
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Maziak, W., Eissenberg, T., Klesges, R.C., Kiel, U., and Ward, K.D. (submitted for publication) Adapting Smoking Cessation Interventions for Developing Countries: A Model for the Middle East.

  • Miles, D.R., Silberg, J.L., Maes, H.H., and Eaves, L.J. Testing for effects of genes, environment, and gender in tobacco initiation and continuation in adolescents: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach. College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Bal Harbour, FL, June 2003.

  • Miles, D.R., Silberg, J.L., Pickens, R.W., and Eaves, L.J. Gender differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use (2002). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66:S120.


Recent vcu tobacco research publications and presentations8
Recent VCU Tobacco-Research Publications and Presentations Adolescents from Progressing to Dependency

  • Pickens, R.W., Balster, R.L. and White, M. International Symposium on Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Santander, Spain, October 4, 2002.

  • Sellers, E.M., Ibekwe, A., Martin, B.R., Glassco, W., Damaj, M.I., and Tyndale, R.F.: In vitro identification of nicotine analogs as CYP2A6 inbitiros and substrates. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Savannah, GA, 2002.

  • Wiley, J.L., Lavecchia, K.L., Martin, B.R. and Damaj, M.I. (2002) Nicotine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion in rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 10:129-135.

  • Zack, M., Belsito, L., Scher, R., Eissenberg, T., and Corrigall, W.A. (2001) Effects of abstinence and smoking on information processing in adolescent smokers. Psychopharmacology. 153:249-257.


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