The Wright Brothers
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The Wright Brothers. Chapter Overview. The Wright Brothers Developing Aircraft. Warm Up Questions CPS Questions (1-2). Courtesy of Comstock Images. How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight. All pilots face three challenges: Get up in the air Stay up Control the craft

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The Wright Brothers

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The wright brothers

The Wright Brothers


Chapter overview

Chapter Overview

  • The Wright Brothers

  • Developing Aircraft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Warm up questions cps questions 1 2

Warm Up QuestionsCPS Questions(1-2)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


How the wright brothers succeeded in the first flight

How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight

  • All pilots face three challenges:

    • Get up in the air

    • Stay up

    • Control the craft

  • Pilots experimented in flight with:

    • Manned and powered, full-size aircraft

    • Models

    • Full-size gliders

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Learning check 1 cps questions 3 4

Learning Check #1CPS Questions(3-4)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


How the wright brothers succeeded in the first flight1

How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight

  • The Wrights chose a glider as their starting point

    • They could focus first on balancing and controlling the aircraft

    • Power (an engine) could come later

    • They applied what they learned at each step to make the next one go more smoothly

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Step one unmanned box kite

Step One: Unmanned Box Kite

  • The Wrights’ kite had

    • A five-foot wingspan and biplane structure

    • Struts that connected the upper and lower wings

    • Bracing strung diagonally between the struts

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the Air Force Historical Research Agency


Step one unmanned box kite1

Step One: Unmanned Box Kite

  • They discovered that they didn’t need to tilt an entire wing to turn the craft:

    • Needed to twist only the ends of the wings

    • They called this process “wing warping”

  • In the summer of 1899, Wilbur Wright successfully tested the kite in a field

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Step two manned gilders

Step Two: Manned Gilders

  • Between 1900 and 1902, the brothers built three gliders

  • Before putting a man aboard, they flew each glider like a kite

  • They wanted to test it for control and lift

  • Only after doing this would they put a man aboard

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Wright gliders

Wright Gliders

  • The early glider experiments taught the brothers three important things:

    • How to control climb and descent

    • The best design for the shape of the wing

    • How large the wing area had to be to sustain lift

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University


The first glider 1900

The First Glider (1900)

  • In their experiments in 1900, the Wrights placed an elevator at the front of the glider

  • Earlier designers mounted elevators behind the wings

  • But the Wrights found it easier to control climb and descent when the elevator was placed forward

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The first glider

The First Glider

  • They also focused on airfoil—a wing’s profile

    • Zeroed in on curve of the wing

    • Tried to design a wing that shifted the center of pressure toward the front edge of the wing

    • Placed the highest point of the wing’s arc closer to the outer edge than to the center—to create greater stability and control

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The first glider1

The First Glider

  • The brothers test-flew their glider at Kill Devil Hills in 1900

  • It didn’t crash, but clearly improvements were necessary

  • The Wrights headed back to Ohio to build the next version

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The second glider 1901

The Second Glider (1901)

  • The first glider didn’t have nearly enough lift

  • So for their 1901 glider, the brothers increased the wing area to 290 square feet

  • This glider was also a big disappointment

  • The brothers couldn’t control it well when they tested it at Kill Devil Hills

  • It flew less than 300 feet—time to return to Dayton!

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The wind tunnel

The Wind Tunnel

  • The brothers built a wind tunnel in their bicycle shop to test model-size wings

    • Made them of sheet steel

    • Cut more than 200 model wings of different shapes

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University


Learning check 2 cps questions 5 6

Learning Check #2CPS Questions(5-6)

Chapter 1, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


The third glider 1902

The Third Glider (1902)

  • This glider had two fixed, vertical rudders behind the wings

  • Test flights showed that this resulted in erratic behavior during turns

  • So the Wrights tried a single, movable, vertical rudder

  • This improved control

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The third glider

The Third Glider

  • The third glider had:

    • Forward elevator

    • Elliptical shape

    • Longer, skinnier wings

    • Wing area of 305 feet

    • Low angle of attack

  • This design was a success

  • The brothers took to the air in the North Carolina dunes more than 700 times in the fall of 1902

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of NASA


Step three a manned powered aircraft

The 1903 Engine viewed from the side

Step Three: A Manned, Powered Aircraft

  • The brothers set out to fit their plane with an engine

    • They tried to buy one ready made

    • But no one met their needs or price

  • So they had their bicycle mechanic, Charles E. Taylor, build them a four-cylinder, 12-horsepower engine

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the Library of Congress


Delays

Delays

  • In September 1903 they returned to Kitty Hawk and Kill Devil Hills

  • First they had to build a trolley track to give their powered aircraft a running start

  • Bad weather also caused delays

  • The brothers tossed a coin, and Wilbur won

  • However, on the first test flight of the Wright Flyer, he crashed it

  • It took three days to repair the damaged craft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


First flight

First Flight!

  • On 17 December, Orville took the controls

  • The Flyer rose into the air and stayed aloft for 12 seconds and traveled 120 feet

  • Orville had made the first controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air human flight with a powered aircraft

  • The brothers took turns piloting the Flyer for three more flights

  • The fourth and final launch lasted 59 seconds, and the craft traveled 852 feet

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Anatomy of the wright flyer

Anatomy of the Wright Flyer

  • Equipped with an engine and propellers

  • Biplane with wingspan of 40 feet, four inches, and a wing area of 510 square feet

  • Wings had spars and ribs (covered in muslin)

  • Struts and bracing between top and bottom wings

  • Plane also had a front elevator

  • Rudder at the rear (covered in muslin)

  • Skids rather than wheels

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Anatomy of the wright flyer1

Anatomy of the Wright Flyer

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University


How the flyer worked

How the Flyer Worked

  • The brothers controlled their craft with:

    • the forward elevator

    • the use of wing warping

    • and a single, movable rear rudder

  • Surprisingly, the pilot did not sit upright

  • The pilot lay on his stomach in a padded cradle on the lower wing

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


How the flyer worked1

How the Flyer Worked

  • To the pilot’s left was a lever that he used to control the up-and-down movement of the elevator

  • By moving his hips, he pulled on the cables connected to the wings and rudder (directing the plane left or right)

    • With the new, flexible rudder, the plane finally turned in the intended direction

    • The cables attached to the wings twisted one wing down while forcing the other wing up

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Principles of airplane flight

Orville and Wilbur assembling the 1903 Flyer (detail)

Principles of Airplane Flight

  • To get the Wright Flyer off the ground, the brothers had to solve the principles of flight:

    • Lift

    • Drag

    • Thrust

    • Angle of attack

    • Center of pressure

    • Airfoil

    • Relative wind

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of “Wright State University


Principles of airplane flight1

Principles of Airplane Flight

  • An engine and propellers gave Wilbur and Orville the ability to use not only lift but also thrust to propel their plane

    • Vertically mounted propellers could provide the airflow for thrust

    • They needed 90 pounds of thrust to propel the Wright Flyer

    • Their 12-horsepower engine and the large propellers proved equal to the task

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Wright brothers involvement with the us army

Wright Brothers’ Involvement With the US Army

  • The Wright brothers continued refining their airplane

  • In January 1905, they had contacted their representative in Congress (R. M. Nevin) and tried to interest the US government in buying their airplane

  • Their offer was turned down

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Wright brothers involvement with the us army1

Wright Brothers’ Involvement With the US Army

  • The British and French governments were interested in buying the Flyer

  • But the brothers wanted the US government to have the first crack at owning a Wright Flyer

  • On 22 May 1906 they received a government patent for their invention

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The wright brothers patent

The Wright Brothers’ Patent

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the U.S. Air Force


Bids for a government plane

Bids for a Government Plane

  • On 23 December 1907, Gen James Allen sent out a request for bids to build a plane for the government

  • The Wright Flyer met the bid requirements

  • Orville Wright signed a contract on 10 February 1908 selling the Flyer to the US government

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Ways the wright brothers contributed to army aviation

Ways the Wright Brothers Contributed to Army Aviation

  • Orville spent much of 1908 and 1909 improving the Flyer

  • He made more test flights and took up military passengers

  • One such flight tragically ended in a crash that seriously injured Orville and killed 1st Lt Thomas Selfridge—the first US military aviation casualty

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Ways the wright brothers contributed to army aviation1

Ways the Wright BrothersContributed to Army Aviation

  • The brothers switched roles in mid-1909

  • Wilbur trained two pilots for the Army—1st Lt Frank P. Lahm and 2d Lt Fredric E. Humphreys

  • A third pilot, 1st Lt Benjamin Foulois, got instruction late that month

  • Foulois went on to achieve the rank of major general and was also chief of the Army Air Corps

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Army airplanes

Army Airplanes

  • It took a while for the Army to decide how to use airplanes during war

  • At first, the Army thought that airplanes would be useful only for aerial reconnaissance

  • World War I brought about a change in strategy

  • But before that could happen, airplanes needed improvements to make them faster, sturdier, and more reliable

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Learning check 3 cps questions 7 8

Learning Check #3CPS Questions(7-8)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


Review

Review

  • The Wrights choose a glider as their starting point

  • They began in July 1899 with an unmanned box kite

  • Between 1900 and 1902, the brothers built three gliders—first flying them like a kite, then putting a man aboard

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Review1

Review

  • The early glider experiments taught the brothers three important things:

    • How to control climb and descent

    • The best design for the shape of the wing

    • How large the wing area had to be to sustain lift

  • Once the Wrights had resolved questions about control and lift, they set out to fit their plane with an engine

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Review2

Review

  • On 17 December 1903 Orville made the first controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air human flight with a powered aircraft

  • The brothers controlled their craft through three main means:

    • The forward elevator

    • The use of wing warping

    • A single, movable rear rudder

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Review3

Review

  • On 22 May 1906 the brothers received a government patent for their invention

  • On 10 February 1908 they sold the Wright Flyer to the US government

  • It took a while for the Army to decide how to use airplanes during war

  • Airplanes needed improvements to make them faster, sturdier, and more reliable

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


Review questions cps questions 9 10

Review QuestionsCPS Questions(9-10)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images


Summary

Summary

  • How the Wright brothers succeeded in the first flight

  • The anatomy of the Wright Flyer

  • The principles of airplane flight

  • The history of the Wright brothers’ involvement with the US Army

Chapter 2, Lesson 1


The wright brothers

Next….

  • Done—the Wright brothers

  • Next—developing aircraft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of NASA


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