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By Sheetal N Singh Coordinator, City Managers Association Karnataka (CMAK) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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"Waste to Energy " Production of Value addition products from crude glycerol obtained from Process industry waste. By Sheetal N Singh Coordinator, City Managers Association Karnataka (CMAK) 21 st Floor, Public Utility Bldg., MG Road , Bangalore -01

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By Sheetal N Singh Coordinator, City Managers Association Karnataka (CMAK)

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"Waste to Energy "Production of Value addition products from crude glycerol obtained from Process industry waste


Sheetal N Singh

Coordinator, City Managers Association Karnataka (CMAK)

21st Floor, Public Utility Bldg., MG Road , Bangalore -01

  • About CMAK

  • “City Managers Association Karnataka”

  • CMAK is a Membership based professional body working to strengthen issues related to Urban sectors in conjunction with Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) of Karnataka.

  • CMAK domain areas –

  • Research

  • 1.Documenting Best practice initiatives and transfer program in urban sector.

  • 2. Service Level Benchmarking (SLB)

  • 3. Solid Waste Management (SWM)

  • 4. Water and wastewater conservation

  • 5. Energy efficiency

  • 6. Public Disclosure Law and other projects related to urban issues

  • Information Dissemination

  • Training and capacity Building

  • Study Tours

  • Value Addition from Process waste

  • Production of Bio-diesel from Chicken waste

  • Crude Glycerol as byproduct

  • Focus to use Glycerol

  • Energy source obtained from Glycerol

  • Production of Gly coal, Gly-ethanol, Gly gas

  • All the 3 new sources –waste to energy derivatives



  • Production of biodiesel from chicken feather meal.

  • Trans-esterification procedure was done from the chicken fat sample to obtain two layers- biodiesel and glycerin.

  • This glycerin obtained is used as a source of energy to generate green power.


Two Stage Method

Chicken fat oil

Acid Esterification (Methanol +H2SO4 )

At 65 °C

for 50 min

FFA removal

At 68 °C

for 50 min

Base Transesterification (Methanol+ NaOH)

Glycerin settling and separation

Methanol recovery

Temp above 70 °C

Washing (4-5 times)

At 110 °C

FAME/ Dry Bio-ethanol

Chicken fat bio-diesel

Glycerin used to produce three forms of energy:

-- Gly-coal

-- Gly-ethanol

-- Gly-gas

Properties of Glycerin

IUPAC Name: Propane-1,2,3,-triol

Molecular formula: C3H8O3

Yield: 100 ml of glycerin from 1000ml of the chicken fat through trans-esterification process.

Colour: Dark Brown

Texture: Semi-solid, thick syrup-like consistency

Odour: Chicken-like

Molecular Weight: 92.09

Density: 1.22 – 1.24 g/ml at 25°C

Viscosity at 40° C: 8.68 centistokes

Flash Point: 120°C

Melting Point: 18°C

Boiling point: 130°C

Freezing Point: 2°C

Ash Content

Fumes on addition of Sulphuric acid

Muffle furnace


Ash formed

% Ash = (Weight of ash * 100) / weight of sample = 1.88 %

Moisture Content

% Moisture Content = 3.0345 %

Distillation of Crude Glycerin

Vaccum distillation unit

% yield = (Yield/ Wt of sample)*100

= (3.75/200)*100

= 1.875%

Pure glycerin


  • A combination of waste glycerin with biomass agriculture residue such as coconut husk, Pongamia seed shell, saw dust, leaf litter etc to produce combustible pellets which can be easily and inexpensively manufactured, as a superior alternative to coal energy plants, a new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF).

Pongamia pod husk

Powdered bio-mass

  • The raw materials are mixed manually in the optimized ratio and filled in PVC pipes and compressed which helps in attaining the shape and stability. It is allowed to dry for 2 days and then removed and kept for drying again for 3 days. The finished pellet was further analyzed.

Optimization Of Pellets


Very poor

Best Pellets

Properties of Gly-Coal

Emission test : The samples were burnt and tested for emissions in a gas analyzer by inserting the probe.

Result Table –Emission test

Calorific value

The CV is measured by burning it in a controlled environment. The resulting heat released by this combustion i.e. the net temperature rise, is proportional to the calorific value and was tested by firing the coal in Bomb calorimeter at Bangalore Test House.

Burning Efficiency Test

The gly-coal burning capacity was tested by boiling water using 50 grams of gly-coal and parameters such as time and temperature were recorded.

Result Table –Burning efficiency


  • Ethanol fermentation from glycerin is an anaerobic fermentation. The process uses yeast to convert glycerin into ethanol.

  • Reagents used-

  • 20% glycerin

  • 5g baker’s yeast

  • Distilled water

  • 20g Broken wheat

Glycerol Kinase

Fermentation using Yeast



150 ml of ethanol was produced.

Flame Test

  • Blue color flame observed when burnt in a spirit lamp.

Dichromate assay

Ethanol after titration

On adding starch

Concentration of ethanol obtained= 21 %



The effects of glycerin on the performance of anaerobic digester were examined by adding glycerin in order to enhance methane production.

The supplementation of the feed with crude glycerol had a significant positive effect in methane production rate.

Biogas plant

Feeding with glycerin

Biogas stove

Rising of the Gas holder tank

Characterization of Gly-gas


All by-products of biodiesel production provide valuable feedstocks for power generation. The results can be summarized in few points:

  • Crude glycerol from biodiesel production was proven to be a suitable substrate for anaerobic degradation.

  • Gly-coal of good quality with efficient burning and low emissions and can be used as a substitute for coal.

  • Renewable and sustainable energy to the industry

  • Ethanol of 21% concentration was produced with glycerin as source of carbon.

  • Bio-gas production was found to be enhanced with the addition of glycerin

  • Bio-gas is one such source which is renewable and can reduce the dependence on fossil oil to a considerable extent.

  • Bio-gas production technology is simple and has proven successful for Indian weather conditions.

    Overall, crude glycerin has various applications and we have experimented with a few of them.

    The results were mainly 3 important sources from a process industry waste .



Biomass briquettes and pellets, Dr.David Fulford and Dr.Anne Wheldon, Ashden Technology,2010.

Anaerobic Fermentation of Glycerol to Ethanol, Chloe LeGendre, Jordan Mendel, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Chemical and biomolecular engineering, 2009.

Zero Waste Biodiesel Using Glycerin and biomass to create renewable energy, Sean Brady, Gregory Leung, Christopher Salam, Department of chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, 2007.

”Glycerol production by microbial fermentation- A Review”, Zheng-Xiang Wang, Jian Zhuge, et al, Biotechnology Advances,2001.

Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks J. C. Thompson, B. B. He

Ethanol Production during Batch Fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Changes in Glycolytic Enzymes and Internal pH K. M. Dombek and L. 0. Ingram, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, June 1987, p. 1286-1291 Vol. 53, No. 6

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