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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through H 2 and V2G-based Energy Storage. February 9 th , 2009. Team BANANA Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse , Tim Miller, Will Reid. Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity. The not-so-good news…. The good news……….

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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through H 2 and V2G-based Energy Storage

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Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through

H2 and V2G-based Energy Storage

February 9th, 2009

Team BANANA

Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse, Tim Miller, Will Reid


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity

The not-so-good news….

The good news……….

Data taken from: B.Sovacool. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Renewable Intermittency:

Giggity-

Gigga-Watts

Image modified from: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/03-04/sustainable_cities/images/casestudy/wind%20output.gif


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Effect of Storage: Load Leveling

Jackpot!

Constant electricity production from Renewables


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Our Assignment

Make this happen in DE by 2019:

Some Questions:

How much can we get in DE? 20%? 40%?

What if we use V2G instead of hydrogen?

How much storage & at what cost to keep ?


2006 delaware energy usage

2006 Delaware Energy Usage

Delaware spends ~$1.3billion/yr for electricity

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/plain_html/sum_btu_1.html


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

2006 Sankey Diagram for Delaware


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

How much can we get in DE?

Solar

Wind

Ocean


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

How much can we get in DE?

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

From Renewables to Storage

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

50 kWh Li-ion battery banks in

Electric Vehicles

Battery-Based Energy Storage


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

From Renewables to Storage

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

Pipes


Transmitting h 2

Transmitting H2

In order to Transmit H2 from the southern part of the state to Wilmington ~ 100 miles of polymer lined fiber composite Hydrogen pipeline would be needed

In order to have the ability to transmit a day’s worth of H2 through the pipeline ~ $1.7 million/mile worth of infrastructure costs.

Still Cheaper than a 550 kV power line (by about $0.8 million/mile

Storage & Fuel . Cell sites.

H2 Pipeline

Proposed H2 Generation


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

6 Scenarios for 2019

  • Key Assumptions & Design Parameters

  • Energy demand growth 1%/yr

  • Keep average system capacity constant

  • Non-renewable CF= 90% during down times

  • Renewable CF=30%


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

DE 2019 Sankey Diagram

Scenario 2m


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Cost for each Scenario

$1.3 billion


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Policy Recommendations

Consumer Related Policies

  • Regressive state income tax rebate attached to V2G vehicles

    • Y1=25%; Y3=15%; Y7-12=5%/Y

  • Free parking, tolls, Net Metering components for V2G vehicles

  • Insurance policy subsidization

    • Projects >25kW (insurance requirement)

  • Progression of efficiency standards


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Policy Recommendations

Utility Related Policies

  • Mandatory $0.01/kWh premium on fossil fuel based electricity for Green Fund contribution

  • Free permitting for renewable energy projects (new or upgrades)

  • Facilitation of ocean energy generation technologies:

    • -Mixed energy source utilization requirement for offshore renewable energy projects

  • Encourage development of complimentary efforts

    • Smart Grid, Conservation


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Conclusions

  • DE has tremendous renewable energy potential

  • Hydrogen and/or V2G are viable options to mitigate intermittent electricity generation.

  • 3.Energy storage can allow large (>20%) renewable electricity generation, but at a cost.

  • 4.Technology exists TODAY to do this. We suggest policies to make this happen NOW.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Questions?


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Determining % of Cars as V2G


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Battery & H2 Storage Characteristics

Energy Density & Power

Efficiency

Hydrogen

40

Ragone Plot

Source: Hall & Bain. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Effect on Overall Efficiency


Current delaware energy usage

Current Delaware Energy Usage

The Bottom Line:

1st Staters spend a total of $1.3 Billion/yr on Electricity

a - kWh; b - kWh; c – c/kWh; d - in dollars; e – weighted total; http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/esr/table5.html


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

So What Will it Cost us?


Solar potential in de

Solar Potential in DE

At 15 %efficiency; 27 square miles of properly1 placed tracking solar panels could produce the entire state’s electricity demand.

1.3 percent of States land area

100% of DE’s Rooftop could provide 22% of state’s electricity needs.2

1.Overview of Renewable Energy Resources in Delaware. Applied Energy Group. October 2002. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2367976/Overview-of-Renewable-Energy-Resources-in-Delaware

2.Kempton, Willet. Delaware’s Wind Potential. Environmental Footprint Workgroup 2008 http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/Admin/Documents/Kempton-EnvFootprintWorkgroup-July08.pdf. February 4, 2009


Wind potential

Wind Potential

Taking shipping lanes, Visual exclusions, and Bird flyways into consideration; Delaware has 54.3 TWh per year of Wind Potential (after taking 0.39 Capacity factor into account).

This is ~ 7 X the proposed 8 TWh that would be needed to reach the amount of wind needed for the 40 % target 2


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Wave Energy Potential

  • 30 kW/m

  • 740 kWh rating

  • 35% capacity factor

  • 150 units

  • Lifetime of 20 years


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h 2 and v2g based energy storage

Storage by Hydrogen

  • 240 Gallons

  • 250 psi

  • $5000

  • Lifetime of 15 years

Manufacturer: Roy E. Hanson Jr. Mfg.


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