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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through H 2 and V2G-based Energy Storage. February 9 th , 2009. Team BANANA Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse , Tim Miller, Will Reid. Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity. The not-so-good news…. The good news……….

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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through

H2 and V2G-based Energy Storage

February 9th, 2009

Team BANANA

Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse, Tim Miller, Will Reid


Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity through

The not-so-good news….

The good news……….

Data taken from: B.Sovacool. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)


Renewable Intermittency: through

Giggity-

Gigga-Watts

Image modified from: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/03-04/sustainable_cities/images/casestudy/wind%20output.gif


A Solution: Energy Storage through

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off


A Solution: Energy Storage through

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


A Solution: Energy Storage through

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


Effect of Storage: Load Leveling through

Jackpot!

Constant electricity production from Renewables


Our Assignment through

Make this happen in DE by 2019:

Some Questions:

How much can we get in DE? 20%? 40%?

What if we use V2G instead of hydrogen?

How much storage & at what cost to keep ?


2006 delaware energy usage
2006 Delaware Energy Usage through

Delaware spends ~$1.3billion/yr for electricity

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/plain_html/sum_btu_1.html



How much can we get in DE? through

Solar

Wind

Ocean


How much can we get in DE? through

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


From Renewables to Storage through

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

50 kWh Li-ion battery banks in

Electric Vehicles

Battery-Based Energy Storage


From Renewables to Storage through

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

Pipes


Transmitting h 2
Transmitting H through 2

In order to Transmit H2 from the southern part of the state to Wilmington ~ 100 miles of polymer lined fiber composite Hydrogen pipeline would be needed

In order to have the ability to transmit a day’s worth of H2 through the pipeline ~ $1.7 million/mile worth of infrastructure costs.

Still Cheaper than a 550 kV power line (by about $0.8 million/mile

Storage & Fuel . Cell sites.

H2 Pipeline

Proposed H2 Generation


6 Scenarios for 2019 through

  • Key Assumptions & Design Parameters

  • Energy demand growth 1%/yr

  • Keep average system capacity constant

  • Non-renewable CF= 90% during down times

  • Renewable CF=30%


DE 2019 Sankey Diagram through

Scenario 2m


Cost for each Scenario through

$1.3 billion


Policy Recommendations through

Consumer Related Policies

  • Regressive state income tax rebate attached to V2G vehicles

    • Y1=25%; Y3=15%; Y7-12=5%/Y

  • Free parking, tolls, Net Metering components for V2G vehicles

  • Insurance policy subsidization

    • Projects >25kW (insurance requirement)

  • Progression of efficiency standards


Policy Recommendations through

Utility Related Policies

  • Mandatory $0.01/kWh premium on fossil fuel based electricity for Green Fund contribution

  • Free permitting for renewable energy projects (new or upgrades)

  • Facilitation of ocean energy generation technologies:

    • -Mixed energy source utilization requirement for offshore renewable energy projects

  • Encourage development of complimentary efforts

    • Smart Grid, Conservation


Conclusions through

  • DE has tremendous renewable energy potential

  • Hydrogen and/or V2G are viable options to mitigate intermittent electricity generation.

  • 3. Energy storage can allow large (>20%) renewable electricity generation, but at a cost.

  • 4. Technology exists TODAY to do this. We suggest policies to make this happen NOW.


Questions? through



Battery & H2 Storage Characteristics through

Energy Density & Power

Efficiency

Hydrogen

40

Ragone Plot

Source: Hall & Bain. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)



Current delaware energy usage
Current Delaware Energy Usage through

The Bottom Line:

1st Staters spend a total of $1.3 Billion/yr on Electricity

a - kWh; b - kWh; c – c/kWh; d - in dollars; e – weighted total; http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/esr/table5.html



Solar potential in de
Solar Potential in DE through

At 15 %efficiency; 27 square miles of properly1 placed tracking solar panels could produce the entire state’s electricity demand.

1.3 percent of States land area

100% of DE’s Rooftop could provide 22% of state’s electricity needs.2

1.Overview of Renewable Energy Resources in Delaware. Applied Energy Group. October 2002. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2367976/Overview-of-Renewable-Energy-Resources-in-Delaware

2.Kempton, Willet. Delaware’s Wind Potential. Environmental Footprint Workgroup 2008 http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/Admin/Documents/Kempton-EnvFootprintWorkgroup-July08.pdf. February 4, 2009


Wind potential
Wind Potential through

Taking shipping lanes, Visual exclusions, and Bird flyways into consideration; Delaware has 54.3 TWh per year of Wind Potential (after taking 0.39 Capacity factor into account).

This is ~ 7 X the proposed 8 TWh that would be needed to reach the amount of wind needed for the 40 % target 2


Wave Energy Potential through

  • 30 kW/m

  • 740 kWh rating

  • 35% capacity factor

  • 150 units

  • Lifetime of 20 years


Storage by Hydrogen through

  • 240 Gallons

  • 250 psi

  • $5000

  • Lifetime of 15 years

Manufacturer: Roy E. Hanson Jr. Mfg.


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