Birth control hormonal methods
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Birth control: hormonal methods. Maša Vikić-Topić Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat. Introduction. Oral hormones: the pill Morning-after pill Injection: depot medroxypro- gesterone acetate (DMPA) Contraceptive patch Vaginal ring Contraceptive implants.

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Birth control: hormonal methods

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Birth control hormonal methods

Birth control: hormonal methods

Maša Vikić-Topić

Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat



  • Oral hormones: the pill

  • Morning-after pill

  • Injection: depot medroxypro-

    gesterone acetate (DMPA)

  • Contraceptive patch

  • Vaginal ring

  • Contraceptive implants

Birth control hormonal methods

  • Because of many side-effects, OCP can be bought only with a doctor’s prescription.

  • OCP is effective on some animals.

  • Because of its simple use, OCP were easily introduced in many parts of the world.

  • The first OCP were made out of wild yam root.

  • If pregnancy occurs under OCP, there is a higher risk of multiple pregnancies.

Oral contraceptive pills ocp

Oral contraceptive pills (OCP)

  • Oral contraceptive made from synthetic hormones

  • 97%-99% effective

  • Combined pill or mini-pill

Combined pill

Combined pill

  • Contains estrogen and progestin

  • 21-day or 28-day form

  • Monophasic or multiphasic (fewer side effects)

  • Effect: ova do not mature so there is no ovulation

Mini pill


  • Contains only progestin

  • Used continuously 28 days

  • Effect: thickens the cervical mucus and makes the lining of the uterus less receptive to implantation

  • Indicated because of medical reasons and women breatsfeeding


Absolute: CV diseases, liver damage, hormone-dependent tumors

Relative: age >35 + another risk factor (smoking, DM etc.)


Pro s

↓ Dysmenorrhea

↓ Ovarian carcinoma

↓ Endometrial carcinoma

↓ Ovarian cysts

↓ Breast cysts


↓ Risk of ectopic


↓ Anemia

↓ Acne

↓ Hair growth

↓ Osteoporosis


Con s

↑ Risk of CV disease

↑ Risk of breast cancer

↑ Risk of cervical cancer

↑ Risk of thromboembolic


↑ Risk of liver adenoma

Lipid metabolism disorders



Post-pill amenorrhea

Weight gain

Breast tenderness


Morning after pill

Morning-after pill

  • Contains a progestin or a progesterone agonist-antagonist

  • Effect: prevents or delays ovulation, blocks fertilization, or keeps a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus

  • Application: oral, up to 107 to 120 hours after intercourse

  • Side effects: nausea,abdominal pain, fatigue, headache, dizziness, and breast tenderness

Injection depot dmpa

Injection depot DMPA

  • Synthetic long-acting form of the hormone progesterone

  • Effect: prevents the release of the ova from the ovary (ovulation); promotes thick cervical mucus

  • Application: injected every three months (12 weeks)

  • Side effects: irregular menstrual cycles, cessation of menstrual periods, weight gain

  • Con: long time before pregnancy can occur

Contraceptive patch

Contraceptive patch

  • Transdermal delivery system

  • Effect: same as OCP

  • Application: stuck on skin every week

  • Side effects: same as OCP, greater risk (con)

  • Pro: better compliance

Vaginal ring

Vaginal ring

  • Device that contains combined hormones

  • Effect: same as OCP

  • Application: placed in the vagina for 3 weeks

  • Side effects: same as OCP + increased vaginal discharge

Contraceptive implants

Contraceptive implants

  • Slow release of a progestin over a period of three years

  • Effect: prevents the release of the egg from the ovary (ovulation); promotes thick cervical mucus

  • Application: inserted in the upper arm under local anesthesia

  • Side effects: irregular bleeding

  • Pro: fertility rapidly returns

Birth control hormonal methods


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