Characteristics of rural-urban elderly living in
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Characteristics of rural-urban elderly living in poverty. ELDERLY IN. MALAYSIA. ___________________________. SAIDATULAKMAL MOHD, Ph.D. This study benefits from the financial support provided by the Social Security Research Center (SSRC), Universiti Malaya, Malaysia.

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Characteristics of rural-urban elderly living in poverty

ELDERLY IN

MALAYSIA

___________________________

SAIDATULAKMAL MOHD, Ph.D.

  • This study benefits from the financial support provided by the Social Security Research Center (SSRC), Universiti Malaya, Malaysia


Outline of presentation

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

  • Background of study

  • Objectives of study

  • Data & Findings

  • Conclusion


Background of study

BACKGROUND OF STUDY


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Current Situation


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Population data

  • Percentage population aged 55 years an above increase from 7.6 percent in 1970 to 12.3 percent in 2012

  • 2015 Malaysia’s population aged 65 years and above will be six percent of the total population


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Poverty incidence (2009 & 2012)


Objectives of study

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


Data findings

DATA & FINDINGS


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  • HIS 2009 data provided by the DOS

  • 19,125 observations or elderly are used for the analysis (9,452 in rural and 9,673 in urban areas)

  • Information on socio demographic profiles is provided at the household and individual levels


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Male : 48.05

Female : 51.91

58-59 : 14,74

60-64 : 30.79

65-69 : 21.36

70-74 : 16.59

75-79 : 8.47

80 & Above: 8.06

AGE

Gender

Bumiputera :63.39

Chinese : 30.58

Indian : 5.55

Others : 0.48

Married : 67.54

Others : 32.46

Characteristics of elderly

Marital

Status

Ethnicity

Homemakers etc : 71.45

Senior officials & managers : 0.48

Professionals: 0.49

Technicians & associate

professionals : 1.37

Clerical workers : 0.48

Skilled agriculture & fishery : 12.38

Craft & related trade: 2.07

Plant & machine operators : 1.66

Elementary occupations : 3.33

Working Group

Education

Primary : 42.60

Secondary : 18.37

Tertiary : 4.13

None : 34.90

Strata

Urban : 50.56

Rural : 49.44


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Male : 7.97

Female : 11.73

58-59 : 5.56

60-64 : 6.36

65-69 : 10.12

70-74 : 13.66

75-79 : 15.98

80 & Above: 16.90

AGE

Gender

Bumiputera :13.66

Chinese : 3.02

Indian : 5.17

Others : 10.99

Characteristics of elderly living in poverty

(9.9%)

Married : 7.40

Others : 15.17

Marital

Status

Ethnicity

Homemakers etc:10.32

Senior officials & managers : 1.86

Professionals: 0.00

Technicians & associate

professionals : 3.80

Clerical workers : 0.00

Skilled agriculture & fishery : 12.95

Craft & related trade: 5.79

Plant & machine operators : 2.84

Elementary occupations : 11.91

Working Group

Education

Primary : 7.95

Secondary : 2.05

Tertiary : 0.63

None : 17.58

Strata

Urban : 4.72

Rural : 15.24


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Male : 49.44 / 50.56

Female : 49.45 / 50.55

58-59 : 13.75 / 15.70

60-64 : 29.65 / 31.90

65-69 : 21.25 / 21.46

70-74 : 17.44 / 15.75

75-79 : 9.19 / 7.76

80 & Above: 8.71 / 7.43

AGE

Gender

Characteristics of rural-urban elderly

Bumiputera :84.41 / 42.83

Chinese : 12.12 / 48.65

Indian : 2.93 / 8.12

Others : 0.55 / 0.40

Married : 67.63 / 67.44

Others : 32.37 / 32.56

Marital

Status

Ethnicity

Homemakers etc: 65.02 / 77.74

Senior officials & managers : 1.44 / 3.04

Professionals: 0.33 / 0.65

Technicians & associate

professionals : 0.82 / 1.91

Clerical workers : 0.13 / 0.82

Skilled agriculture & fishery : 22.15 / 2.82

Craft & related trade: 1.69 / 2.45

Plant & machine operators : 1.14 / 2.16

Elementary occupations : 3.39 / 3.27

Working

Group

Education

Primary : 46.68 / 38.61

Secondary : 9.93 / 26.63

Tertiary : 1.32 / 6.88

None : 42.07 / 27.88


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Male : 12.59 / 3.46

Female : 17.70 / 5.89

58-59 : 8.39 / 7.88

60-64 : 18.92 / 22.32

65-69 : 21.07 / 24.07

70-74 : 23.70 / 20.13

75-79 : 13.51 / 14.00

80 & Above: 14.41 / 11.60

AGE

Gender

Characteristics of rural-urban elderly living in poverty

Bumiputera :93.42/ 67.83

Chinese : 4.50 / 24.51

Indian : 1.66 / 6.78

Others : 0.42 / 0.88

Married : 52.53 / 43.54

Others : 47.47/ 56.46

Marital

Status

Ethnicity

Homemakers etc: 72.49 / 80.09

Senior officials & managers : 0.49 / 0.22

Professionals: 0.00 / 0.00

Technicians & associate

professionals : 0.49 / 0.66

Clerical workers : 0.13 / 0.00

Skilled agriculture & fishery : 19.82 / 4.60

Craft & related trade: 0.97 / 1.97

Plant & machine operators : 2.16 / 1.09

Elementary occupations : 2.98 / 7.22

Working

Group

Education

Primary : 32.99 / 37.64

Secondary : 2.49 / 7.88

Tertiary : 0.07 / 0.88

None : 64.45 / 53.61

Strata

Urban : 4.72

Rural : 15.24


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Logistic analysis

Other Ethnicity is the reference category in ethnicity; No Education is the reference category in education; Other House Type is the reference category in House


Conclusion

CONCLUSION


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  • This study had empirically demonstrated that elderly’s poverty incidence is still at a relatively low level

  • Nevertheless, poverty incidence in the rural area is relatively high, more than three times higher than the urban areas.

  • The logistic probability estimation indicates that the many factors influencing elderly poverty include household size, presence of young child in a household, age, education attainment, strata and house ownership


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  • Education has important role in reducing poverty: with education, the probability of poverty could be reduced, regardless on the type of education, let them be primary, secondary and tertiary

  • Role of wealth in reducing poverty: house ownership is an example of wealth acquisition and this is an important element to reduce poverty

  • Ethnicity remains an issue in poverty: being a Bumiputera is susceptible to be poor in the rural areas while being a Chinese has a higher probability to be out of poverty in the urban area


Thank you

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Thank you


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