The Freedom Train, 1948. The Red Scare and McCarthyism Origins Actions Consequences. “Highpoints” of American Anti-communism. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) from 1938-present Most famous for Hollywood investigations in 1947, Hiss trial of 1948
The Red Scare and McCarthyism
This committee had existed in the 1920s and 1930s, but was not held in very high regard during the 20s and 30s, and did not do much. HUAC then investigated a variety of "activities," including those of German-American Nazis during World War II.
But starting in 1947, when the Republicans took back control of Congress for the first time in 18 years, it became active again. HUAC had three implied goals:
During the first part of the hearings, the Committee called cooperative (“friendly”) witnesses, and allowed them to read prepared statements. These people testified about what they knew of Communist activity in Hollywood.
Rand: Incidentally, I have never seen so much smiling in my life, except on the murals of the world's fair pavilion of the Soviets…It is one of the stock propaganda tricks of the communists, to show these people smiling. That is all they can show. You have all this, plus the fact that an American conductor had accepted an invitation to come there and conduct a concert, and this took place in 1941 when Stalin was the ally of Hitler. That an American would accept an invitation to that country was shocking to me, with everything that was shown being proper and good and all those happy people going around dancing, when Stalin was an ally of Hitler.
….MR. JOHN MCDOWELL: You paint a very dismal picture of Russia. You made a great point about the number of children who were unhappy. Doesn't anybody smile in Russia any more?
RAND: Well, if you ask me literally, pretty much no.
MCDOWELL: They don't smile?
RAND: Not quite that way, no. If they do, it is privately and accidentally. Certainly, it is not social. They don't smile in approval of their system
On the Waterfront
Directed by Elia Kazan, starring Marlon Brando. The hero of the movie is a dockworker who turns in fellow dockworkers who have been instrumental in letting the mafia infiltrate and take over the union. In the end, the informant gets severely beaten, loses family members, but ultimately triumphs over evil.
Chapter 2: Loyalty and Security
"We won the Hiss case in the papers. We did. I had to leak stuff all over the place. Because the Justice Department would not prosecute it. Hoover didn't even cooperate. It was won in the papers. We have to develop a program, a program for leaking out information. We're destroying these people in the papers."
"I had Hiss convicted before he got to the grand jury....I no longer have the energy, [but we need] a son of a bitch who will work his butt off and do it dishonorably. I know how to play the game and we're going to play it.“ --1971
Historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade"
"Had observers known in the 1950s what they have learned since the 1970s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism.'"
J Edgar Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents.
Chapter the Third:
The Saga of
Flier issued in May 1955 by the Keep America Committee urging readers to "fight communistic world government" by opposing public health programs
Dwight D “Ike” Eisenhower,