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Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) of the deep northeastern Pacific Ocean: a baseline survey. W.E. Eash-Loucks. University of Kansas – Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Institute. Why Study Deep Sea Anemones?.

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Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) of the deep northeastern Pacific Ocean: a baseline survey.

W.E. Eash-Loucks

University of Kansas – Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Institute

why study deep sea anemones
Why Study Deep Sea Anemones?
  • Very little is known about the fauna and their distribution
  • Much is known about shallow water anemones
  • Growing oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Oregon
oxygen minimum zones omzs
Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs)
  • ~150 worldwide
  • Low oxygen
    • Hypoxia
    • Anoxia
  • Below photic zone
  • Areas where little mixing occurs
  • Can be natural or manmade

http://earthguide.ucsd.edu

the omz off the coast of oregon
The OMZ off the Coast of Oregon
  • Caused by upwelling
    • High nutrients
    • Low oxygen
  • Strongest in summer
  • Growing

mcbi.org

Chan et al., 2007

effects of omz on marine life
Effects of OMZ on Marine Life
  • Increased mortality
  • Cnidarians have high tolerance to low O2
  • Sea anemones are likely to be the last group effected

Grantham et al., 2004

Vaquer-Sunyer and Duarte, 2008

establishing a baseline
Establishing a Baseline
  • Southern California to British Columbia
  • 60 – 4,100 m
  • 1960s – 1970s
  • Approximately 25 species
  • 13 studied closely
    • Large
    • Abundant
methods for species identification
Methods for Species Identification
  • External Anatomy
    • Body form and color
    • Tentacle number and

arrangement

  • Internal Anatomy
  • Histology
  • Cnidae

etc.usf.edu

previously described species
Previously Described Species
  • Metridium farcimen
  • Paractinostola faeculenta
  • Anthosactis nomados
  • Actinauge verrillii
  • Paraphelliactis pabista
previously described species1
Previously Described Species
  • Corallimorphus denhartogi
  • Monactis vestita
  • Bathyphellia australis
  • Liponema

brevicornis

new unidentified species
New/Unidentified Species
  • Bolocera sp.
  • Actinoscyphia n. sp.
  • Sicyonis n. sp.
  • Member of Family Sagartiidae
summary
Summary
  • OMZ in northeastern Pacific Ocean poses a threat to marine life
  • Established baseline of anemone fauna can be used to make conclusions about how anemones are effected by the growing OMZ
  • Identified 13 of approximately 25 species of deep sea anemones
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Funding
    • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Travel Fund
    • Biodiversity Institute, Panorama Society Small Grant
  • Specimen Loans
    • Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
  • Daphne Fautin
ad