Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) of the deep northeastern Pacific Ocean: a base...
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Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) of the deep northeastern Pacific Ocean: a baseline survey. W.E. Eash-Loucks. University of Kansas – Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Institute. Why Study Deep Sea Anemones?.

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W e eash loucks

Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) of the deep northeastern Pacific Ocean: a baseline survey.

W.E. Eash-Loucks

University of Kansas – Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Institute


Why study deep sea anemones

Why Study Deep Sea Anemones?

  • Very little is known about the fauna and their distribution

  • Much is known about shallow water anemones

  • Growing oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Oregon


Oxygen minimum zones omzs

Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs)

  • ~150 worldwide

  • Low oxygen

    • Hypoxia

    • Anoxia

  • Below photic zone

  • Areas where little mixing occurs

  • Can be natural or manmade

http://earthguide.ucsd.edu


The omz off the coast of oregon

The OMZ off the Coast of Oregon

  • Caused by upwelling

    • High nutrients

    • Low oxygen

  • Strongest in summer

  • Growing

mcbi.org

Chan et al., 2007


Effects of omz on marine life

Effects of OMZ on Marine Life

  • Increased mortality

  • Cnidarians have high tolerance to low O2

  • Sea anemones are likely to be the last group effected

Grantham et al., 2004

Vaquer-Sunyer and Duarte, 2008


Establishing a baseline

Establishing a Baseline

  • Southern California to British Columbia

  • 60 – 4,100 m

  • 1960s – 1970s

  • Approximately 25 species

  • 13 studied closely

    • Large

    • Abundant


Methods for species identification

Methods for Species Identification

  • External Anatomy

    • Body form and color

    • Tentacle number and

      arrangement

  • Internal Anatomy

  • Histology

  • Cnidae

etc.usf.edu


Previously described species

Previously Described Species

  • Metridium farcimen

  • Paractinostola faeculenta

  • Anthosactis nomados

  • Actinauge verrillii

  • Paraphelliactis pabista


Previously described species1

Previously Described Species

  • Corallimorphus denhartogi

  • Monactis vestita

  • Bathyphellia australis

  • Liponema

    brevicornis


New unidentified species

New/Unidentified Species

  • Bolocera sp.

  • Actinoscyphia n. sp.

  • Sicyonis n. sp.

  • Member of Family Sagartiidae


Summary

Summary

  • OMZ in northeastern Pacific Ocean poses a threat to marine life

  • Established baseline of anemone fauna can be used to make conclusions about how anemones are effected by the growing OMZ

  • Identified 13 of approximately 25 species of deep sea anemones


Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

  • Funding

    • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Travel Fund

    • Biodiversity Institute, Panorama Society Small Grant

  • Specimen Loans

    • Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History

  • Daphne Fautin


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