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The Middle Ages. An Overview. Alaric I at the Sack of Rome (410). a violent, dangerous world. I. Effects of the collapse of Roman Civilization. Decline of trade and cities (de-urbanization) Loss of literacy and a common language Personal ties replaced the concept of citizenship

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The middle ages

The Middle Ages

An Overview




I effects of the collapse of roman civilization
I. Effects of the collapse of Roman Civilization

  • Decline of trade and cities (de-urbanization)

  • Loss of literacy and a common language

  • Personal ties replaced the concept of citizenship

  • Christianity spread and emerged as the only unifying element

    • Missionaries (St. Patrick, Augustine of England)

    • Political “conversions” (Clovis)

    • Monastic life (Benedictine Rule)



Ii feudal society reciprocity
II. Feudal Society: Reciprocity

  • “Estates”

    • Those who work (serfs and burghers)

    • Those who fight

    • Those who pray

  • Lords and vassals

  • Serfdom






Hell was very Real

“How can we avoid going there?”





The investiture controversy
The Investiture Controversy Clergy

  • Who is more powerful, pope or emperor?

  • Who should appoint (invest) bishops?



Problem: Heresy. Clergy

Solution: INQUISITION



The threat of islam
The 1“threat” of Islam


First crusade to free the holy land
First Crusade to “free” the Holy Land 1

  • Map 9.2: The First Crusade, 1096–1098 (p. 354)



Iv effects of the crusades on europe
IV. Effects of the Crusades on Europe 1

  • New military technique and technology.

    • New ideas to use on each other (100 years war)

  • Strengthened the power of kings and the middle class

  • Exchange of ideas and goods

    • Revival of trade





V the babylonian captivity and the great schism
V. The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism 1

  • Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)

    • Papal seat moved to Avignon, France

    • Suspicion of French control over the Church

  • Great Schism (1378-1417)

    • Mutual excommunication by French and Italian popes

    • Two series of popes until 1417

  • Resulted in suspicion of popes and the church generally.


End 1


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