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Kepler’s Laws

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Kepler’s Laws

Kepler’s Laws

- Johannes Kepler
- Mars’ orbit is not a perfect circle, it is elliptical
- The speed of Mars’ orbit changes
- Closer to sun = faster
- Farther away from sun = slower
- Lead to Kepler’s 3 Laws

Kepler’s 1st Law

- The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus

Kepler’s 2nd Law

- Each planet revolves so that the “imaginary line” that connects it to the sun sweeps equal amount of area in equal time intervals
- Closer to sun = faster
- Farther away = slower

Kepler’s 3rd Law

- The square of a planet’s orbital period is proportional to the cube of its distance from the sun
- Orbital period - how long it takes to orbit the sun
- Astronomical Unit (AU) – average distance between Earth and sun – 150 million km
- T2 = d3 ; T = orbital period, d=distance from sun in AUs

Kepler’s 3rd Law

- T2 = d3
- Mars has period (T) of 1.88 years (T = 1.88)
- (1.88)2 = 3.54
- d3 = 3.54
- d = 1.52 AU

Kepler’s Laws Tri-fold

- Use a tri-fold/brochure to explain Kepler’s 3 Laws. There should be no words other than labeling each 3rd as to which law you are demonstrating. You may also use the formula for Kepler’s 3rd law.

Orbits

- Barycenter – point between two objects where they balance each other
- When a moon orbits planet, or planet orbits a star, both bodies are orbiting around a point that lies outside of the larger body (star/planet)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKo6tfFtZg8

(2:59)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnHUAc20WEU

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barycentric_coordinates_(astronomy)

Orbits

- The Sun is NOT a stationary object.
- Sun moves as the planets tug on it
- Sun orbits the solar system’s barycenter

Moon and Earth Relationship

- Earth pulls on the moon, and moon pulls on Earth
- This “tugging” from the moon can cause the Earth to bulge

Moon and Earth Relationship

- Earth’s solids cannot give, however water does, causing our tides
- Two high tides and two low tides a day
- 12hrs and 25 min between two high tides

Moon and Earth Relationship

- Rise and fall daily due to Earth, Sun, and Moon interactions
- Since earth is rotating, we experience two tides each day

Moon and Earth Relationship

- Spring Tides – when moon and sun interact together and form extreme tides.
- Occurs during full and new moons

Moon and Earth Relationship

- Neap Tides – moon and sun pull at right angles and cancel each other out...very weak tides

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l37ofe9haMU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRPtNAA-9UE