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# Kepler’s Laws - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Kepler’s Laws. Kepler’s Laws. Johannes Kepler Mars’ orbit is not a perfect circle, it is elliptical The speed of Mars’ orbit changes Closer to sun = faster Farther away from sun = slower Lead to Kepler’s 3 Laws. Kepler’s 1 st Law.

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### Kepler’s Laws

Kepler’s Laws

• Johannes Kepler

• Mars’ orbit is not a perfect circle, it is elliptical

• The speed of Mars’ orbit changes

• Closer to sun = faster

• Farther away from sun = slower

• Lead to Kepler’s 3 Laws

Kepler’s 1st Law

• The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus

Kepler’s 2nd Law

• Each planet revolves so that the “imaginary line” that connects it to the sun sweeps equal amount of area in equal time intervals

• Closer to sun = faster

• Farther away = slower

Kepler’s 3rd Law

• The square of a planet’s orbital period is proportional to the cube of its distance from the sun

• Orbital period - how long it takes to orbit the sun

• Astronomical Unit (AU) – average distance between Earth and sun – 150 million km

• T2 = d3 ; T = orbital period, d=distance from sun in AUs

Kepler’s 3rd Law

• T2 = d3

• Mars has period (T) of 1.88 years (T = 1.88)

• (1.88)2 = 3.54

• d3 = 3.54

• d = 1.52 AU

Kepler’s Laws Tri-fold

• Use a tri-fold/brochure to explain Kepler’s 3 Laws. There should be no words other than labeling each 3rd as to which law you are demonstrating. You may also use the formula for Kepler’s 3rd law.

• Barycenter – point between two objects where they balance each other

• When a moon orbits planet, or planet orbits a star, both bodies are orbiting around a point that lies outside of the larger body (star/planet)

(2:59)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barycentric_coordinates_(astronomy)

• The Sun is NOT a stationary object.

• Sun moves as the planets tug on it

• Sun orbits the solar system’s barycenter

• Earth pulls on the moon, and moon pulls on Earth

• This “tugging” from the moon can cause the Earth to bulge

• Earth’s solids cannot give, however water does, causing our tides

• Two high tides and two low tides a day

• 12hrs and 25 min between two high tides

• Rise and fall daily due to Earth, Sun, and Moon interactions

• Since earth is rotating, we experience two tides each day

• Spring Tides – when moon and sun interact together and form extreme tides.

• Occurs during full and new moons

• Neap Tides – moon and sun pull at right angles and cancel each other out...very weak tides