Management of technological organizations planning
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Management of Technological Organizations - Planning. Catherine Smith Friday, February 29, 2008 9:50 AM to 12:50 PM. Today’s Agenda. Feedback Strategic planning in IT SWOT analysis Preview and review for upcoming exam Leadership, key dates and deliverables. Strategic Planning.

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Management of technological organizations planning

Management of TechnologicalOrganizations- Planning

Catherine Smith

Friday, February 29, 2008

9:50 AM to 12:50 PM


Today s agenda

Today’s Agenda

Feedback

Strategic planning in IT

SWOT analysis

Preview and review for upcoming exam

Leadership, key dates and deliverables

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Management of technological organizations planning

Strategic Planning

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Strategic planning

Strategic Planning

Before we look at management tools or theories related to planning,

consider…

  • Are you a planner? (Where do you expect to be 5 years from now? How will you get there?)

  • Is the organization where you work an organization that practices planning? (How? What methods do they use? Have you been a part of the process?)

  • Is your family one that plans? (A yearly vacation? Family activities? Saving for a goal?)

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Strategic planning cont d

Strategic Planning (Cont’d.)

Peter Drucker, the father of modern management

  • In his well-known book Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices defines management by pointing to three critical aspects of managing:

    • Operating

    • Controlling

    • Planning

  • Proposes that management is a practice, not a science, and that it draws on specific skills:

    • Communications

    • Decision making

    • Strategic planning

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Strategic planning cont d1

Strategic Planning (Cont’d.)

… but what’s the paradox of information system planning?

Planning is needed more than ever, but…

the rapid pace of change makes planning ever more difficult.

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Strategic planning overview

Strategic Planning Overview

Strategic planning decision-making framework

  • Set Organizational Goals and Objectives

  • Develop Alternatives

  • Compare/evaluate alternatives using objective criteria and weights based on the leader's guidance

  • Choose among alternatives the one that best matches the criteria

  • Implement the decision

  • Command, lead and manage

  • Feedback loop-observe results and begin process again as required

    (Shambach, S. A. (1996). Strategic Decision-making in the Information Age.

    Retrieved Sept. 22, 2006, from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/stratdm.htm)

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Strategic planning in it

Strategic Planning in IT

Who does planning in the IT organization? Everyone!

  • Senior Management/CIO

    - strategic planning: Vision (3 – 5 years)

  • Middle managers/committees/task forces, etc.

    - tactical: Resource allocation, project selection (1 – 2 years)

  • IS/IT workers, line managers

    - Operational: project management, meeting time and budget targets, use of personnel, day to day operations to meet timelines (6 months – a year)

What type of planning are you engaged in for work on your case study project?

(McNurlin & Sprague. (2006) p. 135)

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Strategic planning in it cont d

Strategic Planning in IT (Cont’d.)

Traditional Strategy Development

Step 1:

Where is

the business

going

and why?

Business Strategy

IT impact

and

potential

  • Business decision

  • Objectives and direction

  • Change

Supports business

Direction for IS

System Strategy

Step 2:

What is

required?

  • Business based

  • Demand oriented

  • Application focused

Infrastructure and services

Needs and priorities

Step 3:

How can

it be

delivered?

IT Strategy

  • Activity based

  • Supply oriented

  • Technology focused

(McNurlin & Sprague. (2006) p. 137)

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Strategic planning in it cont d1

Strategic Planning in IT (Cont’d.)

Sense and Respond

  • Strategies unfold step-by-step: reduces risk

  • Strategy is close to the front line: market driven

  • “Strategic envelope”: many eggs in many baskets

    IT:

    • a stake in the game

    • anticipate tomorrow

    • always provide table-stakes

(McNurlin & Sprague. (2006) p. 139 - 145)

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What are approaches to support planning

What Are Approaches to Support Planning?

Planning Techniques to Support a “Sense and Respond” Approach

  • Stages of growth

  • Critical success factors (see SWOT)

  • Competitive forces model (see SWOT)

  • Value chain analysis

  • E-biz “value matrix”

  • Linkage analysis

  • Scenario planning

(McNurlin & Sprague. (2006) pp. 145-166)

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What other tools to support planning

What Other Tools to Support Planning?

Practices to SUPPORT planning and strategic decision making:

  • SWOT analysis

  • Benchmarking

  • Environmental scanning/trend analysis

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Swot analysis

SWOT Analysis

What is SWOT analysis?

  • It is a planning tool that allows managers to identify

    • Strengths

    • Weaknesses

    • Opportunities

    • Threats

  • Allows an organization to understand where it’s positioned in its sector.

  • This is important because one must go into the “marketplace” with eyes wide open, understanding barriers and limitations as well as strengths and vulnerabilities.

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Swot analysis cont d

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

SWOT Decision-support Model

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Swot analysis cont d1

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

SWOT Decision-support Model

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Swot analysis cont d2

Potential

Market

Entrants

Potential

Substitute

Products

Customers

Competitors

Suppliers

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

Kmart – fill in strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats?

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Swot analysis cont d3

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

Let’s think about Kmart – what are its strengths?

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Swot analysis cont d4

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

Let’s think about Kmart – what are its strengths?

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Swot analysis cont d5

SWOT Analysis (Cont’d.)

Steps to SWOT Analysis

  • Identify strengths. List them

  • Identify weaknesses. List….

  • Identify opportunities. List…

  • Identify threats. List…

  • Analyze the lists created. Decide how each will be addressed. Ask the

    following questions:

    How can we …

    - Take advantage of opportunities,

    - Counter threats,

    - Build on strengths,

    - Correct organizational weaknesses,

    …to accomplish our mission and meet our goals?

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Benchmarking

Benchmarking

Another way to help an organization plan

  • Benchmarking is both a planning and an evaluation tool.

  • It consists of comparing your own organization’s performance with that of a widely recognized high quality organization.

  • The comparison can reveal where you are and where you might want to be.

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Benchmarking cont d

Benchmarking (Cont’d.)

Steps to benchmarking

  • Know how your own organization works (establish a baseline).

  • Determine who’s best (e.g. NY Yankees) in the area you want to measure.

  • How did the organization/dept. become best? (best hitters, pitchers, outfielders, strategy for defense, offense, etc.)

  • Research the organization thoroughly.

  • Determine how the standard (i.e., the best baseball team) can be quantified.

  • Be ethical in the information you gather. Be clear on how you will use it and how you will care for the information.

Red Sox

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Benchmarking cont d1

Benchmarking (Cont’d.)

  • What Are Key Performance Indicators (KPI)?

  • Critical success factors of an organization. They will differ depending on

  • the organization: percentage of income from return customers for a

  • business, graduation rates for a school

  • KPIs reflect organizational goals

  • KPIs must be quantifiable to be of value. There must be a way to

  • accurately define and measure it. Targets set for each KPI so that

  • everyone will understand and be able to take specific action to accomplish.

(Reh, F. J. (n.d.) Key Performance Indicators (KPI). Retrieved Oct. 6, 2006, from

fttp://management.about.com/cs/generalmanagement/a/keyperfindic.htm)

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Environmental scanning

Environmental Scanning

Assessing the overall environment

  • Environmental scanning as a key trend analysis tool to help organizations plan and respond to external forces in times of rapid change.

  • It involves:

    • A scanning and monitoring team

    • Systematic watching for emerging issues or trends

    • Identifying hazards and opportunities before they are obvious to the world at large.

(Newsome & McInerney. (1990). Environmental scanning and the information manager.)

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Environmental scanning cont d

Environmental Scanning (Cont’d.)

Steps in Environmental Scanning

  • Identify the team (choose the creative thinkers, the risk takers, the synthesizers and networkers)

  • Have a scanning prep workshop or training session.

  • Select resources to scan.

  • Decide on the criteria or level to scan.

  • Scan the resources

  • Select key events, issues and trends happening early in the cycle.

  • Analyze results

  • Make sense of it all.

(Newsome & McInerney. (1990). Environmental scanning and the information manager.)

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Sense and respond

Sense and Respond

Today’s rapidly changing environment calls for different approaches

relying on sense and respond:

  • Strategies unfold rather than being planned

  • Formulate strategies as close as possible to actions of organization

  • Use framework for planning:

    • Stages of growth (IT life cycle)

    • Critical success factors (or KP!s)

    • Competitive forces model

    • Value chain analysis

    • E-business value matrix

    • Linkage analysis

    • Scenario planning

(McNurlin & Sprague. (2006) p. 139-145)

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Management of technological organizations planning

Work!

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Written communications

Written communications

  • What you write -- and how you write it -- always represents you

  • In IT and the business world in general, the ability to write is equal to the ability to be persuasive

  • Attention to detail means that you are taking care of your reader

  • If the reader thinks you don’t care they will stop reading

  • Poor writing reflects badly on you as a professional

    – it is not “just academic”

  • Good writing takes time – and demonstrates that you are a person who can set and reach deadlines

    Take your writing seriously

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Citations and references a refresher

Citations and References… a Refresher

On-line source

Heinström, J. (October, 2003). Five personality dimensions and their influence on

information behavior. Information Research, 9 (1). Accessed 15

November 2004, available at http://informationr.net/ir/9-1/paper165.html.

Hock, R. (2004). The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook a Guide for the

Serious Searcher. Medford, NJ: CyberAge Books.

Price, G. (2001). Web search engine FAQs: questions, answers, and issues.

Searcher: TheMagazine for Database Professionals, 9 (9), 39-51.

Book

Journal

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Peter drucker s managing oneself

Peter Drucker’s “Managing Oneself”

Drucker’s approach to self assessment:

  • Identify strengths… and be honest about it!

  • Understand how you accomplish tasks

  • Assess your values

  • Assess carefully where you

    fit best

  • Understand what and how

    you contribute

  • Manage your relationships

Image source:

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.puritangift.com/images/cartoon_wallstreet_260.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.puritangift.com/&h=105&w=102&sz=21&hl=en&start=22&tbnid=sfo0AxHLJ3mwSM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=82&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcartoon%2Bpeter%2Bdrucker%26start%3D20%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

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Class two

Class Two

Let’s go down the hall

See you in room 119 in 10 minutes

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Today s group work

Today’s Group Work

  • Information gathering – do you have enough resources?

  • SWOT analysis

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Case study team meetings

Case Study Team Meetings

Information builds knowledge

  • What sources have you used for your information gathering?

  • Have you been comprehensive?

  • Where are the gaps?

  • How will you build your case?

  • Resources in interesting places – keep looking

    http://www.enterpriseleadership.org/ (CIO interviews)

    http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/home.htm (Bureau of Labor Statistics)

    going beyond the Internet ---

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Case study team meetings cont d

Case Study Team Meetings (Cont’d.)

Going beyond the Internet – email, mail, and phone calls

  • Who runs IT?

  • Who is the head of public relations?

  • Who is the head of shareholder relations?

  • Who used to work for the company? Where are they now?

  • Can you be a client or potential client?

  • Can you talk to existing clients?

  • Who are the competitors? What do their employees have to say?

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Case study team meetings cont d1

SWOT exercise

Use the information you’ve gathered, and new information sources, in your critical analysis

Brainstorm and list the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats – one list for each type

Case Study Team Meetings (Cont’d.)

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Case study team meeting cont d

Case Study Team Meeting (Cont’d.)

SWOT Exercise

  • Analyze each item listed. Decide how each will be addressed. Answer the following questions:

    How will the company …

    - invest in strengths

    - capitalize on opportunities

    - defend against threats

    - address weaknesses

    … to accomplish its mission and meet its goals?

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Case study team meetings cont d2

Case Study Team Meetings (Cont’d.)

Assignment due before class starts next week

SWOT Analysis (#4)

Prepare a SWOT matrix diagram. Write a three page commentary that addresses the following question: How might the company invest in strengths, capitalize on opportunities, defend against threats, address weaknesses and to accomplish its mission and meet its goals? No cover sheet is needed. Use 12 point type and double space.

Submit on paper at start of next week’s class. THIS IS AN TEAM ASSIGNMENT

Grading:

  • Engagement with the commentary – thoughtfulness

  • Completeness of the matrix diagram

  • 5% of your final grade

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Keeping up

Keeping up

Readings

DeMeester “IT Organization Best Practices”

Reading comments due 3/6

Assignments

Prep E:

  • Create a list of secondary sources, including scholarly, for your team’s case study. Appoint a spokesperson and post your team’s list on eCollege Prep E area by midnight Thursday 3/6.

    #3:

  • Create Stakeholder Analysis.

  • Submit on paper at start of next week’s class.

    #4:

  • Create SWOT Analysis.

  • Submit on paper at start of next week’s class.

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Any questions

Any Questions?

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