The inner world as a consequence of behavioural and perceptual simulation
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Faculty of Medicine Lund University. The Inner World As a Consequence of Behavioural and Perceptual Simulation. Germund Hesslow Birmingham 200 3. Problems of the inner world. How does the inner world arise? What is the function of the inner world?

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The inner world as a consequence of behavioural and perceptual simulation

Faculty of Medicine

Lund University

The Inner World As a Consequence of Behavioural and Perceptual Simulation

Germund Hesslow

Birmingham 2003


Problems of the inner world
Problems of the inner world

  • How does the inner world arise?

  • What is the function of the inner world?

  • Can animals and robots have inner worlds?


The simulation hypothesis
The Simulation Hypothesis

  • Behavioural simulation: early stages of an action can occur without causing overt movement.

2) Perceptual simulation: perceptual activity can be elicited within the brain without an external stimulus.

3) Anticipation: simulated perception can be elicited by

(simulated) behaviour.


David hume 1711 76
David Hume (1711-76)


Alexander bain 1818 1903
Alexander Bain (1818-1903)


Simulation of behaviour covert incipient behaviour
Simulation of behaviour: covert, incipient behaviour

’The tendency of the idea of an action to produce the fact, shows that the idea is already the fact in a weaker form. Thinking is restrained speaking or acting.’ (Bain, 1868 p 340)

Analogues:

Have the radio on but the volume turned down.

Have the car engine running but with no clutch


Hierarchical organisation of action
Hierarchical organisation of action

Draw triangle

Get pen Get paper Draw

Draw horizontal line Draw sloping ….

Contract m brachioradialis Contract ....



Evidence for covert behaviour
Evidence for covert behaviour

Imaging studies

Lesion studies

Electrophysiology

Behavioural experiments


Covert behaviour primary motor cortex
Covert behaviour – primary motor cortex

Extension

Extension

Flexion

Flexion

Subjects were instructed to imagine forearm flexion¯ extension movements with their right arm. TMS was applied to the motor cortex on one side, and the MEPs were recorded from the contralateral flexor muscle (biceps brachialis).

Fadiga et al. Neuropsychologia, 37:147-158, 1999


Simulation of perception sensory reactivation
Simulation of Perception:sensory reactivation

‘What is the manner of occupation of the brain with a resuscitated feeling of resistance, a smell or a sound? There is only one answer that seems admissible. The renewed feeling occupies the very same parts, and in the same manner, as the original feeling, and no other parts, nor in any other assignable manner. ‘

(Bain, 1868, p. 338)






Evidence for perceptual simulation
Evidence for perceptual simulation

Behavioural experiments

Imaging studies

Lesion studies

Electrophysiology



Mri signal intensity in visual cortex during external vs imagined stimulus
MRI signal intensity in visual cortex during external vs imagined stimulus

Le Bihan et al. PNAS 90:11802-11805, 1993


Mri activity with external and imagined stimulus
MRI activity with external and imagined stimulus imagined stimulus

Tootell et al, TINS, 2: 174-183, 1998


I am not suggesting
I am NOT suggesting imagined stimulus

That the brain creates an image,a representation or a unified experience of the sensory input or that that image is then inspected to guide behaviour


I am suggesting
I AM imagined stimulussuggesting

That a complex stimulus can elicit many different behaviours, such as describing the stimulus verbally, pointingtowards it, avoiding it, drawing it…

The same is true about an internally generated stimulus.


Anticipation action sensation associations
Anticipation: imagined stimulusaction-sensation associations

’The succession designated as cause and effect, are fixed in the mind by Contiguity. The simplest activity is where our own activity is the cause. We strike a blow, and there comes a noise and a fracture. … Hardly any bond of association arrives sooner at maturity, than the bond between our own actions and the sensible effects that follow from them.’ (Bain, 1868, p. 427)


Predictable consequence
Predictable consequence imagined stimulus

S1

s1

r1

R1

r2

S2

s2

R2


Anticipation
Anticipation imagined stimulus

S1

s1

r1

R1

S2

s2

r2

R2


Anticipation no maps
Anticipation – no maps imagined stimulus

Tolman & Gleitman (1949) J Exp Psych39: 810-819.


Behavioural chain
Behavioural chain imagined stimulus

Simulation of behavioural chain


Do we need cognitive maps
Do we need cognitive maps? imagined stimulus

A B C

D E

F G H

LF(G) D

RF(G) E


Rcbf during tower of london task
rCBF during Tower of London task imagined stimulus

Baker et el., Neuropsychologia. 34:515-26, 1996


Conversation
Conversation imagined stimulus


Talking to oneself
Talking to oneself imagined stimulus


Simulating conversation imagined stimulus


Why do motor structures participate in cognitive functions
Why do motor structures participate in cognitive functions ? imagined stimulus

  • Thinking is covert movement

  • Abstract actions need similar auxiliary systems


Working memory as covert actions extended in time
Working Memory as Covert Actions Extended in Time imagined stimulus

  • Predictions:

  • Working memory

  • involves prefrontal and posterior (sensory) cortex

  • utilises the same circuitry as long-term memory

  • is modality and feature specific


Strong points of the simulation hypothesis
Strong points of the simulation hypothesis imagined stimulus

  • Ontological parsimony: no representations, images …

  • No evolutionary leaps: same structures underlying inner world as are used for perception and movement

  • Explains relationship between cognitive and motor functions


Problems of the inner world1
Problems of imagined stimulusthe inner world

  • How does the inner world arise?

By simulation of behaviour and perception

  • What is the function of the inner world?

Inevitable consequence of simulation

  • Can animals and robots have inner worlds?

Yes, if their ”brains” can generate their own input


References

Outline of the simulation hypothesis can be found in imagined stimulus

Hesslow G (2002) Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Trends Cogn Sci, 6:242-247

Many of the critical ideas can be found in the behaviourist literature, for instance

Bain A (1855, 1868) The Senses and the Intellect

Skinner BF (1974) About Behaviorism. Knopf, New York

For empirical evidence for covert behaviour, see papers by Jeannerod, e.g.

Jeannerod M (1994) The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behav Brain Sci 17: 187-245

Evidence for simulation of perception is reviewed in

Kosslyn SM (1994) Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. MIT Press, Cambridge

Robot simulation

Ziemke T, Jirenhed D-A, Hesslow G (2002) Blind adaptive Behavior Based on Internal Simulation of Perception. Technical report HS-IDA-TR-02-001

More information on my website

www.mphy.lu.se/avd/nf/hesslow

References


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