The inner world as a consequence of behavioural and perceptual simulation
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Faculty of Medicine Lund University. The Inner World As a Consequence of Behavioural and Perceptual Simulation. Germund Hesslow Birmingham 200 3. Problems of the inner world. How does the inner world arise? What is the function of the inner world?

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The Inner World As a Consequence of Behavioural and Perceptual Simulation

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The inner world as a consequence of behavioural and perceptual simulation

Faculty of Medicine

Lund University

The Inner World As a Consequence of Behavioural and Perceptual Simulation

Germund Hesslow

Birmingham 2003


Problems of the inner world

Problems of the inner world

  • How does the inner world arise?

  • What is the function of the inner world?

  • Can animals and robots have inner worlds?


The simulation hypothesis

The Simulation Hypothesis

  • Behavioural simulation: early stages of an action can occur without causing overt movement.

2) Perceptual simulation: perceptual activity can be elicited within the brain without an external stimulus.

3) Anticipation: simulated perception can be elicited by

(simulated) behaviour.


David hume 1711 76

David Hume (1711-76)


Alexander bain 1818 1903

Alexander Bain (1818-1903)


Simulation of behaviour covert incipient behaviour

Simulation of behaviour: covert, incipient behaviour

’The tendency of the idea of an action to produce the fact, shows that the idea is already the fact in a weaker form. Thinking is restrained speaking or acting.’ (Bain, 1868 p 340)

Analogues:

Have the radio on but the volume turned down.

Have the car engine running but with no clutch


Hierarchical organisation of action

Hierarchical organisation of action

Draw triangle

Get pen Get paper Draw

Draw horizontal line Draw sloping ….

Contract m brachioradialis Contract ....


Main signal flow

Main signal flow


Evidence for covert behaviour

Evidence for covert behaviour

Imaging studies

Lesion studies

Electrophysiology

Behavioural experiments


Covert behaviour primary motor cortex

Covert behaviour – primary motor cortex

Extension

Extension

Flexion

Flexion

Subjects were instructed to imagine forearm flexion¯ extension movements with their right arm. TMS was applied to the motor cortex on one side, and the MEPs were recorded from the contralateral flexor muscle (biceps brachialis).

Fadiga et al. Neuropsychologia, 37:147-158, 1999


Simulation of perception sensory reactivation

Simulation of Perception:sensory reactivation

‘What is the manner of occupation of the brain with a resuscitated feeling of resistance, a smell or a sound? There is only one answer that seems admissible. The renewed feeling occupies the very same parts, and in the same manner, as the original feeling, and no other parts, nor in any other assignable manner. ‘

(Bain, 1868, p. 338)


Pain perception

Pain Perception


Phantom pain

Phantom pain


Seeing

Seeing


Imaging

Imaging


Evidence for perceptual simulation

Evidence for perceptual simulation

Behavioural experiments

Imaging studies

Lesion studies

Electrophysiology


Mental rotation

Mental rotation


Mri signal intensity in visual cortex during external vs imagined stimulus

MRI signal intensity in visual cortex during external vs imagined stimulus

Le Bihan et al. PNAS 90:11802-11805, 1993


Mri activity with external and imagined stimulus

MRI activity with external and imagined stimulus

Tootell et al, TINS, 2: 174-183, 1998


I am not suggesting

I am NOT suggesting

That the brain creates an image,a representation or a unified experience of the sensory input or that that image is then inspected to guide behaviour


I am suggesting

I AM suggesting

That a complex stimulus can elicit many different behaviours, such as describing the stimulus verbally, pointingtowards it, avoiding it, drawing it…

The same is true about an internally generated stimulus.


Anticipation action sensation associations

Anticipation:action-sensation associations

’The succession designated as cause and effect, are fixed in the mind by Contiguity. The simplest activity is where our own activity is the cause. We strike a blow, and there comes a noise and a fracture. … Hardly any bond of association arrives sooner at maturity, than the bond between our own actions and the sensible effects that follow from them.’ (Bain, 1868, p. 427)


Predictable consequence

Predictable consequence

S1

s1

r1

R1

r2

S2

s2

R2


Anticipation

Anticipation

S1

s1

r1

R1

S2

s2

r2

R2


Anticipation no maps

Anticipation – no maps

Tolman & Gleitman (1949) J Exp Psych39: 810-819.


Behavioural chain

Behavioural chain

Simulation of behavioural chain


Do we need cognitive maps

Do we need cognitive maps?

A B C

D E

F G H

LF(G) D

RF(G) E


Rcbf during tower of london task

rCBF during Tower of London task

Baker et el., Neuropsychologia. 34:515-26, 1996


Conversation

Conversation


Talking to oneself

Talking to oneself


The inner world as a consequence of behavioural and perceptual simulation

Simulating conversation


Why do motor structures participate in cognitive functions

Why do motor structures participate in cognitive functions ?

  • Thinking is covert movement

  • Abstract actions need similar auxiliary systems


Working memory as covert actions extended in time

Working Memory as Covert Actions Extended in Time

  • Predictions:

  • Working memory

  • involves prefrontal and posterior (sensory) cortex

  • utilises the same circuitry as long-term memory

  • is modality and feature specific


Strong points of the simulation hypothesis

Strong points of the simulation hypothesis

  • Ontological parsimony: no representations, images …

  • No evolutionary leaps: same structures underlying inner world as are used for perception and movement

  • Explains relationship between cognitive and motor functions


Problems of the inner world1

Problems of the inner world

  • How does the inner world arise?

By simulation of behaviour and perception

  • What is the function of the inner world?

Inevitable consequence of simulation

  • Can animals and robots have inner worlds?

Yes, if their ”brains” can generate their own input


References

Outline of the simulation hypothesis can be found in

Hesslow G (2002) Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Trends Cogn Sci, 6:242-247

Many of the critical ideas can be found in the behaviourist literature, for instance

Bain A (1855, 1868) The Senses and the Intellect

Skinner BF (1974) About Behaviorism. Knopf, New York

For empirical evidence for covert behaviour, see papers by Jeannerod, e.g.

Jeannerod M (1994) The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behav Brain Sci 17: 187-245

Evidence for simulation of perception is reviewed in

Kosslyn SM (1994) Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. MIT Press, Cambridge

Robot simulation

Ziemke T, Jirenhed D-A, Hesslow G (2002) Blind adaptive Behavior Based on Internal Simulation of Perception. Technical report HS-IDA-TR-02-001

More information on my website

www.mphy.lu.se/avd/nf/hesslow

References


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