the mammalian kidney
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THE MAMMALIAN KIDNEY. Overall Function. Blood homeostasis Excretes waste Regulates blood pressure Erythropoeisis Activates Vitamin D. Kidney. Hilus Cortex Medulla Renal pyramids (8-18) Pelvis. Kidney Microstructure. Nephron Functional unit of the kidney Glomerulus

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Presentation Transcript
overall function
Overall Function
  • Blood homeostasis
  • Excretes waste
  • Regulates blood pressure
  • Erythropoeisis
  • Activates Vitamin D
kidney
Kidney
  • Hilus
  • Cortex
  • Medulla
    • Renal pyramids (8-18)
  • Pelvis
kidney microstructure
Kidney Microstructure
  • Nephron
  • Functional unit of the kidney
  • Glomerulus
  • Network of blood capillaries
  • Afferent & Efferent arterioles
  • Slits & Pores
nephron tubules
Nephron - Tubules
  • Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule)
    • Renal corpuscle
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Descending limb of loop of nephron (Henle)
  • Loop of nephron
  • Ascending limb of loop of nephron
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • Collecting tubule
nephron physiology
Nephron Physiology
  • Produces 45 gallons of glomerular filtrate per day, but
  • Urine production is lower (2-4 pts/day)
glomerular filtration
Glomerular filtration
  • 45 gallons of filtrate/day!
  • Passive process
  • Glomerulus to capsule
glomerular filtration1
Glomerular filtration
  • Net filtration pressure favors filtration
  • Glomerular blood pressure (60 mm Hg, other caps are 10-30 mm Hg)
  • Capsular pressure
    • Opposes filtration
  • Colloid osmotic pressure
    • Opposes filtration
tubular reabsorption secretion
Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Permeable to solutes & they are actively reabsorbed
  • Permeable to water & it is passively reabsorbed
  • Some tubular secretion (H+ and K+)
descending limb
Descending limb
  • Relatively impermeable to solutes
  • Permeable to water, it is reabsorbed
  • Interstitial gradient promotes reabsorption
slide28
Loop
  • Urea is recycled
ascending limb
Ascending limb
  • Permeable to NaCl, it is reabsorbed
  • Impermeable to water
distal convoluted tubule
Distal Convoluted Tubule
  • Aldosterone
  • Anti-diuretic hormone
  • Secretion occurs (H+, NH3, drugs)
  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (where precursors of erythropoeitin & renin are made)
collecting tubule ducts
Collecting tubule (ducts)
  • Aldosterone causes sodium reabsorption
  • ADH causes water reabsorption
  • Urea to interstitial space
vasa recta
Vasa recta
  • Thin walled blood vessels serving tubules
  • Counter-current
  • Maintains interstitial concentrations
  • Aids in concentrating urine
  • Some water reabsorption
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