The mammalian kidney
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THE MAMMALIAN KIDNEY. Overall Function. Blood homeostasis Excretes waste Regulates blood pressure Erythropoeisis Activates Vitamin D. Kidney. Hilus Cortex Medulla Renal pyramids (8-18) Pelvis. Kidney Microstructure. Nephron Functional unit of the kidney Glomerulus

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THE MAMMALIAN KIDNEY

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The mammalian kidney

THE MAMMALIAN KIDNEY


Overall function

Overall Function

  • Blood homeostasis

  • Excretes waste

  • Regulates blood pressure

  • Erythropoeisis

  • Activates Vitamin D


Kidney

Kidney

  • Hilus

  • Cortex

  • Medulla

    • Renal pyramids (8-18)

  • Pelvis


Kidney microstructure

Kidney Microstructure

  • Nephron

  • Functional unit of the kidney

  • Glomerulus

  • Network of blood capillaries

  • Afferent & Efferent arterioles

  • Slits & Pores


Nephron tubules

Nephron - Tubules

  • Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule)

    • Renal corpuscle

  • Proximal convoluted tubule

  • Descending limb of loop of nephron (Henle)

  • Loop of nephron

  • Ascending limb of loop of nephron

  • Distal convoluted tubule

  • Collecting tubule


Nephron physiology

Nephron Physiology

  • Produces 45 gallons of glomerular filtrate per day, but

  • Urine production is lower (2-4 pts/day)


Glomerular filtration

Glomerular filtration

  • 45 gallons of filtrate/day!

  • Passive process

  • Glomerulus to capsule


Glomerular filtration1

Glomerular filtration

  • Net filtration pressure favors filtration

  • Glomerular blood pressure (60 mm Hg, other caps are 10-30 mm Hg)

  • Capsular pressure

    • Opposes filtration

  • Colloid osmotic pressure

    • Opposes filtration


Tubular reabsorption secretion

Tubular Reabsorption & Secretion

  • Proximal convoluted tubule

  • Permeable to solutes & they are actively reabsorbed

  • Permeable to water & it is passively reabsorbed

  • Some tubular secretion (H+ and K+)


Descending limb

Descending limb

  • Relatively impermeable to solutes

  • Permeable to water, it is reabsorbed

  • Interstitial gradient promotes reabsorption


The mammalian kidney

Loop

  • Urea is recycled


Ascending limb

Ascending limb

  • Permeable to NaCl, it is reabsorbed

  • Impermeable to water


Distal convoluted tubule

Distal Convoluted Tubule

  • Aldosterone

  • Anti-diuretic hormone

  • Secretion occurs (H+, NH3, drugs)

  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (where precursors of erythropoeitin & renin are made)


Collecting tubule ducts

Collecting tubule (ducts)

  • Aldosterone causes sodium reabsorption

  • ADH causes water reabsorption

  • Urea to interstitial space


Vasa recta

Vasa recta

  • Thin walled blood vessels serving tubules

  • Counter-current

  • Maintains interstitial concentrations

  • Aids in concentrating urine

  • Some water reabsorption


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