Principals of Information Technology

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Computer System:. A basic computer system is made up of two parts, Hardware (physical equipment that you can touch), and Software (programs installed on the computer). .

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Principals of Information Technology

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1. © UNT in partnership with TEA 1 Principals of Information Technology Networks and Hackers

2. Computer System: A basic computer system is made up of two parts, Hardware (physical equipment that you can touch), and Software (programs installed on the computer). © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 2

3. Computer Networks: Computer Networks allow users to connect over distances. They allow file sharing, hardware sharing, and instant communication, making them a necessary tool for offices, schools and homes all over the world. A computer network consists of several components, each of which is important to making the network function correctly as a whole. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 3

4. Network: © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 4

5. Parts of a network © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 5

6. Workstations: These are known as Desktop Computers. The computer you use at home or school would be called a Workstation in a Network. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 6

7. Servers: Servers can look like Desktop Computers; however most do not look like your “normal” computer. Servers do not really need monitors, graphics and sound cards. What they really do need is Hard Drives. In most schools, when you save your work, you are saving to a server. By doing this, you can access your school work from any computer that is on your school network. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 7

8. Modems: A modem is a device that enables computers to interpret data they receive from a network, or send data in the proper form along a network. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 8

9. Hubs: A Hub is sort of like a car radio. Every computer that has that section of network (like a radio station) can hear everything that is being transmitted. All the computers that are connected to that hub receive all the information that goes through it. Usually if you have a hub, you also have a router. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 9

10. Switches: A switch is more complex than a Hub and works a lot like a two-way radio. In a room full of people, only the person holding the other radio can hear what is being said. It keeps track of which computers are where and when something comes in, it sends it only to that specific computer, not every computer on that section of the network. It is more secure than a hub, and faster than a hub, but not as powerful as a router. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 10

11. Routers: Routers work a lot like a telephone system. Each computer is given its own unique number by the router. When information comes into the router, it is then sent along to the correct number, or in this case, computer. There are more options built into routers than there are available to switches. A router can have the equivalent phone options of call screening and caller id. This is beyond a switch’s capabilities. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 11

12. Routers © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 12

13. Peer to Peer Networks © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 13

14. Peer to Peer Network: This is a type of network where the computers in the network share resources among each other. Every computer on this network is equal; all the computers run the same networking software and file systems for sharing. Printers, Scanners and other external devices are shared by the machine they are plugged into, otherwise known as managed by. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 14

15. Peer to Peer Network © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 15

16. Pros for a Peer to Peer Network Advantages: It is less expensive to set up a Peer to Peer network initially. You may already own the software needed to get a peer to peer network setup. This type of network does not require the installation of dedicated server hardware or expensive security software. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 16

17. Cons for a Peer to Peer Network Disadvantages: If you have a Peer to Peer Network you need to be aware that shared resources, such as printers, place a special demand on the computers in the network. Also, due to the nature of this type of network, all of the computers on the network provide access to all of the machines resources. The down side of this is that you can unintentionally expose private files to all the other users on the network. There is also no data security or protection from hackers, viruses, etc. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 17

18. Peer to Peer Operating Systems In the Peer to Peer Network Operating System, each of the workstations has an operating system that tells it how to store and share resources with the others. The two software packages that allow this type of network are called Appleshare (for MACs) and Windows for Workgroups (for PCs) © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 18

19. Client Server Networks © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 19

20. Ethernet Ethernet is a type of connection between computers that forms the basis of most LANs. It also serves as one of the main methods for connecting a computer or network to an Internet hub. The origin of Ethernet was the idea of connecting several computers together in a network via coaxial cables; since that time it has evolved into a much more sophisticated system that uses specialized Ethernet cables that connect to a central hub or router in order to network several computers together. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 20

21. Ethernet © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 21

22. LAN LAN stands for Local Area Network. A Local Area Network is a group of computers that are linked together that share internet access, file access, applications, storage, and allow connected computers to share printers and scanners. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 22

23. LAN Issues: For a LAN to work properly, a router must be installed on the primary computer that is connected to the internet. Each computer connected to the LAN must have an Ethernet card installed. The other issue with a LAN is that they are usually confined in a single building. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 23

24. WAN WAN stands for Wide Area Networks. A WAN is a collection of regular local area networks that are all interconnected together to form one giant network. Oftentimes, schools and even large companies will operate a WAN on premises. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 24

25. WANs Continued Advantages: Flexible Access: School networks can be created for students to access files throughout the school district. Speed: Networks speed up the file sharing and saving process. Disadvantages: Expensive to Install: WANs save money over time, but are expensive to set up at first. Time: WANs require maintenance of the network which costs both money and time. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 25

26. Token Rings Token Rings work by sending data from one machine to the next, and so on, around a ring until it ends up back where it started. It also uses a special token passing protocol which means that a machine can only use the network when it has control of the Token; this ensures that there are no collisions because only one machine can use the network at any given time. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 26

27. Token Ring © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 27

28. Token Ring Issues In order for Token Rings to work, All computers must check for lost or duplicate tokens. All connected computers must “Vote” a new leader to create a new token. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 28

29. Client/Server Operating Systems Client/Server set up allows the network to centralize functions and applications in one or more file servers. File servers become the “heart” of this system and provide access to files and resources, as well as providing security. Workstations have access to the resources to files on the file servers. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 29

30. Client/Server Operating Systems There are many different softwares out there for this type of network. The most popular ones are: Macintosh OSX Microsoft Windows Server Novell UNIX © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 30

31. Client/Sever Operating Systems Advantages: This type of network makes it easy to install new technology and new elements. The server can be accessed remotely and you can have both MACs and PCs on the network. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 31

32. Client/Sever Operating Systems Disadvantages: Client/Servers depend on their servers. When they go down, the network will no longer work. There is a hefty investment for a client/server network. It pays off in the long run, but does require money to set it up. Large networks will require dedicated staff to maintain a client/server network, and to work out the “kinks” when problems arise. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 32

33. Network Threats © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 33

34. Hackers A computer Hacker is someone who finds access in a computer’s security system to break into another machine. Hackers usually collect information on the target computer and then try to find access into the computer system. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 34

35. Security Threats The most common threats are: Spam: this is unwanted commercial e-mail. Viruses: can cause your computer to slow down, or even destroy your hard drive. Adware/Malware: this is software that gets installed on the computer. It can cause annoying pop-ups or even steal information. Information Threats: where hackers steal important information: client information, back account numbers, etc. © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 35

36. Hackers Networks can take steps to protect their networks. The most common are: Installing a firewall Advising caution on the net Making sure that the network is password protected, especially if using a wireless network. . © UNT in partnership with TEA IT: [Principals of Information Technology] – [Networks and Hackers] 36

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