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Industrialization and Urbanization in America. Objectives. USH.2.1 Identify the factors necessary for industrialization USH.2.1 Describe economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power.

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Industrialization and urbanization in america

Industrialization andUrbanization in America


  • USH.2.1 Identify the factors necessary for industrialization

  • USH.2.1 Describe economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power.

  • USH.2.2 Identify key ideas, movements, and inventions and explain their impact on rural communities and urban communities in the United States

  • USH 2.3-2.7; and many more



  • The process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one.

  • Developed country means an industrialized country

  • Developing country means a traditional country; trying to change to an industrialized country

  • Fundamental changes:

    • Daily lives are change: family, work, etc.

    • Politics change


  • “Gilded Age”

  • 4 main changes/factors:

    • Technology

    • Innovation

    • Resources

    • Organization

  • Not every American was happy with the change

  • Every aspect of American culture and politics were changed


  • Moving from rural to urban

  • Farm living to city living

Gilded age social thought
Gilded Age: Social Thought

  • Social Darwinism:

    • Herbert Spenser:

      • “survival of the fittest”

      • Do not intervene with poverty

    • William Graham Sumner:

      • Applied Social Darwinism

      • Wrote: “What the Social Classes owe to Each other” (1883)

        • He says they owe nothing to each other

Gilded age social thought1
Gilded Age: Social Thought

  • Social Darwinism

    • Andrew Carnegie:

      • Came from poor Scottish to America

      • Wrote “Gospel of Wealth”

      • Owned 2/3 of steel (named U.S. Steel)

      • Gave $350 million away

      • Built many libraries for children

    • Horatio Alger:

      • Books on how to change from poverty to rich successful people

      • “From Farm Boy to Senator”

      • “Ragged Dick”

Andrew carnegie
Andrew Carnegie

U.S. Steel Company Owner

Gilded age social thought2
Gilded Age: Social Thought

  • Protestant Work Ethic

    • Hard working is morally good

    • Wealth is morally good

    • Poverty is morally wrong

    • Everything determined by you

Gilded age innovations and inventions
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions

  • Elisha Otis

    • Safety Elevator (1852)

  • Alexander Graham Bell

    • Telephone (1876)

  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931)

    • Electricity-light bulb (1880)

  • Granville Woods

    • African American inventor

    • Steam Boiler Furnace (1884)

Gilded age innovations and inventions1
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions

  • Guglielmo Marconi

    • Wireless telegraph (1896)

  • 1850s: English Henry Bessemer

    • Developed Bessemer Process:

      • Process of purifying iron, resulting in strong, but lightweight steel

    • America quickly adopts the process

    • 1890-U.S. outproducing Great Britain with steel manufacturing.

Gilded age innovations and inventions2
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions

  • Suspension Bridges created from the creation of steel

    • Brooklyn Bridge (1883 completed)

      • 1st suspension bridge suspended by steel cables

  • Transportation innovations

    • George Westinghouse created air brakes for trains in 1869

    • Gustavus Swift developed refrigerated cars for carrying food on trains in 1887

    • 1883-three transcontinental railroad lines were created

Gilded age politics
Gilded Age: Politics

  • Gilded Age Presidents

    • Rutherford B. Hayes:

      • Put down a railroad strike in 1877 by killing 70 workers with the federal army

    • James Garfield

      • July 2-shot in arm

      • Sept.-died from infection

      • Handed out many jobs

    • Chester Arthur

      • Fair to both political parties

Gilded age politics1
Gilded Age: Politics

  • Gilded Age Presidents

    • Grover Cleveland

      • Vetoed almost everything that came across his desk

    • Benjamin Harrison

      • Cheated the election

      • Lost popular vote but won electorial vote-2nd to occur

    • Grover Cleveland

      • Only President to run two separate terms

      • Blamed for the 1893 Depression

      • Labor Party was his biggest supporter (Populist)

President benjamin harrison
President Benjamin Harrison

William Henry Harrison’s son

Gilded age politics2
Gilded Age: Politics

  • Congress

    • Created Veterans Benefits

      • 1st time vets received benefits

      • Given to only white and black union vets

    • Tariffs:

      • Tax imports

      • Protect American industry

Gilded age meat packing
Gilded Age: Meat Packing

  • Meat packed with much harmful additives inside package

  • Upton Sinclair: The Jungle

    • Spoke on meat packing

    • Conditions of the work

  • Meat was dropped on the floor, sneezed on, coughed on, and still went through

  • Pg 220

Gilded age daily life
Gilded Age: Daily life

  • Urban places overcrowded

  • Most families live with more than one family in a tenements

  • 1879: windows had to be in every room

  • Trash was thrown out of the window in the street

  • Work 12, 14, or even 16 hrs. a day

  • Apartments (tenements) had no plumbing and no sewage

  • Water shortage

Gilded age workers hardships
Gilded Age: Workers Hardships

  • Factory work became a very popular way to earn money

  • Sweatshops are factories that are hot, dark, and dirty workhouses with workers working 12 hr shifts.

  • Factory work was very dangerous and locked in

  • No OSHA

  • Workers were killed regularly

  • Workers had very few breaks

Gilded age labor unions formed
Gilded Age: Labor Unions Formed

  • Knights of Labor founded 1869 by Uriah Stephens

    • Recruited African Americans regularly

    • 1881: Terence V. Powderly became leader of the Knights

      • Said that everyone are welcome except Chinese

    • They oppose wage labor

  • American Federal of Labor (AFL) founded 1886 by Samuel Gompers

    • Only let skilled workers in

    • They had strikes, but no political reforms

Immigration push pull
Immigration: Push-Pull

  • Push Factors:

    • Religious persecution for Russians and Eastern European Jews

    • Wanted to have a new start

    • Land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land in Mexico, Poland, and China

  • Pull Factors:

    • Plentiful land offered

    • Jobs needed

    • Political Freedom

Immigration who they were
Immigration: Who they were?

  • East Coast:

    • Ellis Island

    • Before 1880: European immigrants that could assimilate into American culture easily

      • Germans

      • Scandinavians

      • Irish

    • After 1880: European immigrants having a harder time assimilating mostly because they were poverty

      • Jews, Slaves (Polish, Bulgarians, etc), and Italians

Immigration who they were1
Immigration: Who they were?

  • West Coast

    • Angel Island

    • All come after 1880

      • Chinese

      • Mexicans

      • Japanese

      • Etc.

    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882-1943 told them no more Chinese come into America

    • Most of the Chinese workers worked on the transcontinental railroad

Immigration social legal whiteness
Immigration: Social/legal Whiteness

  • European Immigrants:

    • Irish were considered the European Blacks

    • Italians were lynched and killed

      • New Orleans (1891)

    • Jews were never really liked by anyone

      • Leo Frank (1913)

Immigration social legal whiteness1
Immigration: Social/legal Whiteness

  • Asian Immigrants:

    • Chinese were told by the Supreme Court that they were not of the Caucasian race

      • In re ah Yup 1876

    • Indians thought that they were of the right race and was told no

      • U.S. vs. Bhagat Singh Thind 1923

    • Japanese believed they were of the Caucasian race and did not gain citizenship

      • Owaza vs. U.S. 1922

Popular entertainment
Popular Entertainment

  • Amusement Parks

  • Outdoor activities

  • Musical dramas

  • Movie theaters

  • Sports: Baseball, horse racing, bike racing, boxing, football, etc.

Populism populist party
Populism: Populist Party

  • Rose out of a falling economy (deflation)

    • Ex: corn falls 43%

    • Wheat falls 50%

  • Farmers organize

    • The Grange (1867) by Oliver H. Kelley

      • “Patron of Husbandry”

      • Created by people who raise livestock and agriculture

Populism populist party1
Populism: Populist Party

  • Farmers organize

    • Farmer's Alliances (1876) started in Texas

      • Active in 48 states when started

      • Wanted to get the government to work with them

    • Populist Party (1892): “People's Party”

      • Wanted to build a new federal government from the ground up

      • Omaha Platform: adopted views in July 1892

        • Unlimited coinage of silver

        • Graduated income tax

        • Government ownership of railroad and telegraph companies

        • Bank regulations

Populism election of 1896
Populism: Election of 1896

  • William McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan

  • Populist party gave Bryan their support

  • “Cross of Gold” speech

    • “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify man upon a cross of gold.”

  • Bryan went all out on election: first tour of the nation as a presidential candidate, speak directly to people, and many other things.

  • William McKinley won election with 271 electoral votes while Bryan had only 176