Control and Prevention of. Dengue fever Malaria and Leishmania. Objectives: You students will be capable to. identify the epidemiology of above arthropods transmissible infectious diseases
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a. aedes aegypti
d. sand flies
e. aedes albopictus
Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia
Areas infested with Aedes aegypti
Areas with Aedes aegypti and recent epidemic dengue
Feeding. Females feed on any vertebrate host, but prefer humans. They fly upwind following odors. The first step can be to enter a house. Blood feeding and oviposition occur mostly in the morning and in the late afternoon.
(Read the attached file)
(Read the attached file)
Group 1: 10 countries interrupted transmission: Bah, Cyp, Jor, Kuw, Leb, Lib, Pal, Tun, UAE
Group 2: 4 countries targeting elimination: Egy, Mor, Oma, SyrGroup 3: 4 countries low- moderate endemicity: Ira, Iraq, Pak, KSAGroup 4: 5 countries high burden: Afghanistan, Dji, Som, Sud, Yem
Leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease caused by Leishmania parasite, which is transmitted by the sand fly .
dLeishmaniasis Life Cycle
Sand fly Stages
Sand fly takes a blood meal
Divide in midgut and
migrate to proboscis
stage into the tissue)
into amastigotes inside
stage in midgut
Amastigotes multiply in cells
(Including macrophages) of
Sand fly takes
a blood meal
Infected with amastigotes )
> 12 Million people infected in 88 countries
> 350 Million people are risk
Annually,0.5M (VL)80,000 Deaths,1.5M(CL)
* Weight loss
* Skin and mucus
It is known in the Kingdom back to 1950.
Ministry of Health has established the leishmaniasis unit in the 1980 Under The precautionary medicine to follow-up the diseasein the Saudi cities
There are VL and CL.
VL caused by L.Donovani LON 42, and the Rattus rattus is the reservoir.
2 types of CL(ZCL and ACL)
In the Riyadh and Eastern province, ZCL transmitted by P.Papatasi and caused by L.Major LON4
CL in Southern region is ACL transmitted by P.Sergenti and caused by L.Tropica LON 72
There are 20 types of Sand Flies in the KSA. 7 are Phlebotomous and 13 are of Sergentomyia type.
has many local names
The peak of cutaneous leishmaniasis is in August, October, December, Januaryand February. The least number of cases are reported in May and June.
Alhsa only 41.2 %
1403-1424 H (Infants)
Leishmaniasis usually affects children more than other age groups .
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quality control of pesticides
Station de Phytopharmacie, Gembloux
HEJIR Chemistry, Karachi
CIPEIN, Buenos Aires