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物理化学实验讲座 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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物理化学实验讲座. 一、目的和要求 二、误差分析 三、数据处理. 一、目的和要求. 实验目的 实验预习 实验记录 实验过程及注意事项 实验报告. 1 、实验目的. 巩固并加深对物理化学基本理论和概念的理解; 掌握物理化学实验的基本方法和技能以及常用仪器的构造、原理和使用方法; 学会仔细观察实验现象,正确记录、处理实验数据和分析实验结果; 培养勤学、认真、求实、节约、环保的优良品德和科学精神。. 2 、实验预习.

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物理化学实验讲座

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1


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2()


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()

  • =

    = /


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()


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  • (Pa)9829498306982989830198291

  • 98298 4Pa 98298 6Pa

    98298Pa 0.004%98298Pa0.006%


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  • 30.3% = 3

    3

  • H.M.Goodwin

    0.1%


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g0.19140.19530.19570.19470.19430.1914

0.1914

= 0.1950

= 0.0005

0.1914


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3

22.47ml 2


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  • ()

  • 1.350.01 237.460.12 R = (8.314510 0.000070) J.K-1.mol-1

  • 0 0.0015kg1.500g1500


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  • 89 8.314

  • 27.0255

  • 13.75+0.0084+1.642=13.75+0.01+1.64=15.40= 15.4004


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  • 1.7510.01919.1 = 1.750.01919.1 = 0.00367 = 0.003675175 = 0.00368

  • lg 317.2 = 2.5013 ln 7.11028 = 66.431.652 = lg 44.9


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  • e 1/3NAR

  • 0.663(78.24+5.5)/(881-851) = 0.66383.74/30 = 1.85 = 1.8


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4

uxy u=F(x,y) (x,yx,y )

xyu


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1


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  • WBWAT0T M

  • WB=0.2072gWB= 0.0003gWA=19.38gWA=0.02g

    Tf=T0T=1.697K(T0T)= |T0|+|T| =0.008K

    = (0.0003/0.2072+0.02/19.38+0.008/1.697)

    = (0.0014+0.0010+0.0047) = 0.0071

    M = 0.126(0.0071) = 0.00089kg/mol


U f x y x y x y u

u=F(x, y, )x, y, x, y , u


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  • T=PV/nR T

    PVnP=6666PaP=13Pa

    V=1000.0cm3V=0.1cm3n=0.0100moln=0.0001mol T

  • T = PV/nR = 66661000106/(0.01008.3145) = 80.2K

    T = 80.2(0.010) = 0.8K


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1

  • xy

  • ()()

  • ()


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3 10%


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2

  • xB 0.02 0.20 0.30 0.58 0.78 1.00

    P/kPa 17.16 18.32 19.29 20.64 21.60 23.00

    xB0~1.00P15.0~25.0kPa

  • 12510nn


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  • ()()

1 B


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OABOOAB2

2

A

B

O


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ABCDOOABCDO3

3

A

B

C

D

O


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3

  • y=a+bx+cx2+


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4


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  • y = a+bxab

    * yx a b

    * i

    i = a+bxiyi i = 1,2,3,,n

    a b


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  • n

    a b


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(xy) xy y = a + bx ab

(1, 3.0) (3, 4.0) (8, 6.0) (10, 7.0) 4a + 22b 20.0 = 0

(13, 8.0)(15, 9.0)(17, 10.0)(20, 11.0) 4a + 65b 38.0 = 0

4a + 32b 24.0 = 0 4a + 55b 34.0 = 0 (a+bxiyi) = 0

a = 2.52 a = 2.70

b = 0.435 b = 0.419


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  • a b


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8a + 87b 58.0 = 0

87a + 1257b 762.0 = 0

a = 2.66

b = 0.422


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