Notes on aks 39
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Notes on AKS 39. Chapter 10 Section 5 and Chapter 11 Sections 1-3. World War I 1914-1918. President Woodrow Wilson declared the US would be a neutral country. Eugene Jacques Bullard. First black African American combat pilot – from Columbus, GA Enlisted in French Foreign Legion: 1914

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Notes on AKS 39

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Notes on aks 39

Notes on AKS 39

Chapter 10 Section 5 and Chapter 11 Sections 1-3


World war i 1914 1918

World War I1914-1918

President Woodrow Wilson declared the US would be a neutral country.


Eugene jacques bullard

Eugene Jacques Bullard

  • First black African American combat pilot – from Columbus, GA

  • Enlisted in French Foreign Legion: 1914

  • Flew combat missions against Germany

  • US Army Air Force refused his services


The united states enters the war

The United States Enters the War

  • President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the war (had declared we would be neutral)

  • 1915: German submarine sank passenger ship Lusitania killing 128 Americans

  • 1917: sub attacks resumed sinking American ships

  • Zimmerman telegram: Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US

  • Wilson finally joined the Allied powers


Georgia and world war i

Georgia and World War I

  • ±100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forces

  • Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, and Camp Gordon helped Georgia economy

  • Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm produce

  • 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war

  • Ended November 11, 1918


Wwi images

WWI Images


Atlanta fire

Atlanta Fire

  • On May 21, 1917, Atlanta’s attention was briefly drawn away from the war because of a local event.

  • Lasted 10-12 hours

  • Seventy city blocks destroyed

  • 6,000-10,000 people left homeless

  • http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/atlanta_fire


Section 1 the roaring twenties

Section 1: The Roaring Twenties

  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION:

    • What made the 1920s ‘roaring’?


The new woman

The New Woman

  • 1920 – 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote

  • More women in the workforce

  • Flappers: name given to women who took on the new fashion – known for short hair, make-up, dancing, drinking

  • First women in Georgia legislature: Bessie Kempton Crowell & Viola Ross Napier

  • Rebecca Latimer Felton 1st woman in U.S. Senate


Music

Music

  • Speakeasies: clubs known for having liquor (which was illegal)

  • Jazz: became popular music – Louis Armstrong & Duke Ellington

  • Cotton Club in Harlem NY most famous jazz club

  • Blues: based on black folk music – Ma Rainey & Bessie Smith

  • The Charleston was the popular dance


Crime

Crime

  • Prohibition: laws made sale and distribution of alcohol illegal

  • Gangsters supplied liquor to speakeasies and clubs

  • Famous gangsters from New York and Chicago: Al Capone; Baby Face Nelson

  • Al Capone: “Public Enemy No. 1” (Imprisoned in Atlanta)


Life in the roaring twenties

Life in the Roaring Twenties

  • Life in US after World War I was good

  • More modern conveniences (products) freed women from household chores (instant and frozen foods)

  • Electricity became more available (small electric appliances)

  • Other inventions included gas stoves, toasters, sliced bread, baby food

  • Radio: WSB started in Atlanta

  • 1927: first talking motion picture

  • Walt Disney creates Mickey Mouse

http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/voice_of_the_south


The destruction of king cotton

The Destruction of King Cotton

  • Boll weevil: insect which ate GA’s most important cash crop

  • Price of cotton also dropped

  • 1924: major drought (period with little or no rain) hit Georgia

  • GA farmers did not have the “good life” that many Americans enjoyed

  • Farms closed forcing banks & farm-related businesses to close


The boll weevil

The Boll Weevil

  • Small, gray, long-snouted beetle that came from Mexico through Texas

  • Destroyed cotton -it hatched in the flower and the larvae ate the white, fluffy cotton-making it useless

  • 1915-Arrived in SW GA spreading quickly and destroying thousands of acres of cotton

  • 1914-Cotton production was 2.8 million bales

  • 1923-Cotton production dropped to 600,000 bales


Drought

Drought

  • 1924-sun-baked fields slowed the boll weevil

  • Drought ruined most crops in the southwest and midwest

  • 375,000 farm workers left GA between 1920 and 1925

  • 310,000 farms fell to 250,000 farms

  • When farms failed-banks took huge losses

  • Farm-related businesses closed

  • The U.S. was in a deep depression. The boll weevil and the drought were contributing factors.


The great migration

The Great Migration

  • Many tenant farmers left Georgia to work in northern factories

  • Chicago and Detroit were popular destinations

  • Many African Americans moved north for better pay, education, and more citizenship rights such as voting

  • Young men sent north first to get jobs; sent for the family when they had saved enough money


The klan strengthens

The Klan Strengthens

  • Targeted African Americans, Jews, Catholics, & immigrants

  • Number of members increased in every state

  • 1925: Klan march on Washington with 40,000 members

  • Declining membership by the end of the decade as members were linked to racial terrorism


A special day

A Special Day

  • 1927: Charles Lindbergh became first person to fly nonstop from New York to Paris

  • 3,600 mile trip, 33 ½ hours – traveled alone

  • No navigation or weather instruments

  • Won $25,000 prize

  • “Spirit of St. Louis” was his plane

  • Came to Atlanta to promote air travel


Section 2 the great depression

Section 2:The Great Depression

  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION

    • How did the Great Depression affect Georgians?


The bottom drops out

The Bottom Drops Out

  • Stock Market: Place where shares of ownership in corporations (stock) are bought and sold

  • “Black Tuesday” – October 29, 1929: Stock market prices fall greatly; millions of people loose all their wealth

  • Total losses by end of year: $40 billion

  • Example: U.S. Steel was $262 per share – dropped to $22 per share

  • Some stocks worth less than 1¢

  • Herbert Hoover was President when the stock market crashed.


Causes of the depression

Causes of the Depression

  • Many people borrowed too much money (they could not afford to pay it back)

  • Factories produced more goods than they could sell

  • Farmers had produced a surplus of food crops (prices fell)

  • After WWI, high tariffs made it difficult to trade with foreign countries.

  • As people and businesses had problems making money, banks did not get paid for loans

  • “Speculation” in the stock market: paying only a portion of the price of a stock hoping that the value will go up

  • Runs on banks: people were afraid they would lose their money if it was left in the bank (BANKS FAILED)

  • laissez-faire: attitude that the economy would fix itself if left alone


Living through the depression

Living Through the Depression

  • 1932: 13 million unemployed

  • 9,000 banks closed

  • 31 Georgia banks failed

  • Hoovervilles: named for President Hoover – shacks where homeless people gathered

  • Soup kitchens set up by charities and governments to feed hungry

  • Schools were often forced to close or shorten schedules

  • Georgians were already suffering from economic problems before Black Tuesday


Easing the burden

Easing the Burden

  • President Hoover’s plan: government would buy farmer’s crops to help raise the price

  • Plan did not work, but the food and cotton were used to help the needy

  • Another plan was to hire unemployed people to do work for the government

  • Plan did not employ enough people to really help

http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/great_depression


Section 3 the new deal

Section 3: The New Deal

  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION

    • How did Georgians benefit from the New Deal?


The new deal

The New Deal

  • 1932: Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)

    elected president

  • New Deal: Roosevelt’s plan to end the depression

    • Examined banks for soundness

    • Give jobs to unemployed workers (relieve the suffering of the jobless)

    • Tried to improve American’s lives (wanted to improve the standard of living for all Americans)

  • Paved the way for economic recovery (though all programs did not work)

  • FDR changed many of the ways the government functioned- the first federal income tax began

  • He lived in a cottage in Warm Springs, GA


The new deal1

The New Deal

  • FDR established many agencies to help farmers, bankers, and children.

  • Securities and Exchange, National Labor Relations, Child Labor laws, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation were aimed at reforming businesses & protecting the public from financial ruin & unfair practices.

  • FDR closed the banks to keep people from taking their money out


New deal agencies

New Deal Agencies


Georgia and the new deal

Georgia and the New Deal

  • NIRA: National Industrial Recovery Act – set minimum wage

  • Textile mill owners did not like the minimum wage

  • Stretch out: mill owners tried to make workers work longer, faster, or more tasks

  • TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority – Blue Ridge Lake, Lake Chatuge, Lake Nottley built

  • CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps – built many parks, sewer systems, bridges, etc.

  • REA: Rural Electrification Authority – brought electric power to rural areas


Civilian conservation corps ccc

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

  • Provided jobs for young single men-building forest trails/roads, planting trees to reforest the land/control flooding, building parks

  • CCC was popular in GA because of its work at Kennesaw Mtn. Nat’l Battlefield Park, Roosevelt State Park (Pine Mountain), Augusta’s Savannah River Levee, and Macon’s Airport

  • Construction of sewer systems and flood control/drainage projects such as Tybee Island’s Seawall

  • The CCC worked to build, expand, or improve schools and hospitals throughout the state. Much of the work on Grady Hospital was done by CCC.


Agricultural adjustment act aaa

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

  • Created in March 1933

  • Paid farmers not to plant crops on part of their land

  • “price supports”-guaranteed higher prices-to farmers who cut back their cotton and tobacco crops

  • The idea was to “raise prices by cutting production” The plan worked and farm incomes improved.

  • Major drawback: Farm “subsidies” (grants of money from the gov’t) went to landowners rather than tenant farmers and poor sharecroppers


Rural electrification authority rea

Rural Electrification Authority (REA)

  • One of the most “Important and far –reaching” of the New Deal programs.

  • 1920’s power companies ran lines to towns and cities

  • Rural population too spread out-power lines were expensive to build and maintain

  • President Roosevelt spent hot nights in Warm Springs, GA. He realized his neighbors had no electricity. His power bill for the little cottage was higher than his New York mansion. In 1935 he created the REA.

  • REA brought electricity to farms and rural homes.

  • By 1940, a large percentage of farmers had electric water pumps, lights, and milking machines. This made life easier for farm families.


Social security

Social Security

  • 1935 Congress passed the Social Security Act

  • Federal Gov’t would provide retirement and unemployment insurance from taxes paid by both workers and their employers.

  • Farmers were not covered

  • Social Security …”will give some measure of protection to the average citizen and to his family against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age.”

  • This program is still used today!


African americans during the new deal

African Americans During the New Deal

  • Did not benefit from many New Deal programs

  • WPA: Works Public Administration – did employ many African Americans

  • Roosevelt’s “Black Cabinet”: influential African Americans working with President Roosevelt:

    • Mary McLeod Bethune

    • Clark Foreman

    • Robert Weaver

    • William Hastie


Georgia s new deal governors

Georgia’s New Deal Governors

  • Richard B. Russell

    • Worked to reorganize state gvt. like a successful business

    • Elected to U.S. Senate and served for 38 years

  • Eugene Talmadge

    • Did not like New Deal programs in Georgia

  • Eurith “Ed” Rivers

    • Worked with Roosevelt to increase New Deal spending in Georgia

    • Began programs for public housing

    • Term ended with corruption problems


Georgia s new deal governors1

Georgia’s New Deal Governors

  • Talmadge re-elected in 1940

    • Began to use some New Deal programs

    • Used his power as governor to remove state officials working to integrate Georgia’s state colleges

  • Ellis Arnall

    • Reformed Board of Regents and state prisons

    • Removed poll tax

    • New state constitution


Impact of political career of eugene herman talmadge

Impact of Political Career of Eugene Herman Talmadge

  • Told rural voters they had 3 friends-”Sears Roebuck, God Almighty, and Eugene Herman Talmadge”

  • Conservative, white supremacist, against Federal Intervention for relief efforts and public welfare.

  • Tried to “rid” GA of New Deal programs

  • Used federal $ to build highways, reduce property taxes, utility rates, & some license fees.


Impact of political career of eugene herman talmadge1

Impact of Political Career of Eugene Herman Talmadge

  • 1934 Re-elected Governor by a “landslide”

  • Any government officials who disagreed with ET were fired and replaced with his supporters.

  • He refused to follow New Deal regulations so the Federal Government took over the ND programs in GA.

  • 1934 During GA’s worst textile strike, Talmadge declared Martial Law and called out the National Guard to arrest strikers.


Impact of political career of eugene herman talmadge2

Impact of Political Career of Eugene Herman Talmadge

  • 1940 Ran for governor again-won.

  • Began using modified versions of “New Deal” legislation. The state’s economy grew.

  • He was involved in a scandal trying to stop integration of UGA and GA Southern College by getting some people fired.

  • The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools voted to take away accreditation of white GA colleges.

  • Eugene Talmadge served four terms as the governor of Georgia.

  • He was elected by the farmers of Georgia because of the county unit system of voting.

  • He was opposed to FDR’s reforms because he did not want big government controlling people’s lives.


Great depression and new deal

Great Depression and New Deal

  • Great Depression Stories

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TpfY8kh5lUw

    • 26 minutes

  • New Deal Government Newsreel

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wF80co_Y_Bc

    • 10 minutes


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