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“People Power Unleashed: South Africa and Philippines”. Kurt Schock. South Africa. Transition to Democracy (56) Soweto 1976: Murder of Students led to nationwide rebellion

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People power unleashed south africa and philippines

“People Power Unleashed: South Africa and Philippines”

Kurt Schock


South africa

South Africa

Transition to Democracy (56)

Soweto 1976: Murder of Students led to nationwide rebellion

Though the rebellion did not topple the government, it did start a process of change and reform that culminated in the 1944 of an ANC (African National Congress) led government in April 1994.

Role of Violence in the Change (57)

Though the ANC used violent tactics, violence alone was unable to topple the apartheid regime.


South africa1

South Africa

South African Regime: History

1910: Union of South Africa formed: excludes blacks.

1912: ANC established (initially challenged the government

through institutional means).

1948: National Party established apartheid system.

1949: ANC launched mass resistance.

1952: Defiance Campaign: civil disobedience against

apartheid.

1952: Mass arrests crippled the movement.


South africa2

South Africa

Anti-Apartheid Movement: Fragmented Movement (58)

After the state crushed the Defiance movement, the passage of more restrictive laws (Suppression of Communism Act) and the Sharpeville attack (69 killed) anti-apartheid movement split over tactics:

Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)(1959)

Supported use of mass demonstrations to protest state policies.

ANC and Umkhonto we Sizwe (communist organization):

Advocated armed resistance against the state.

Leaders, including Mandela arrested in 1962, 1963.


South africa3

South Africa

Resistance After Soweto: (58)

After the police attacked students in June 1976 for protesting a new law mandating that all educational instruction in the country be in Afrikaans, the movement became more sophisticated.

Three Organizations Took the Lead:

1) United Democratic Front (UDF)

2) Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU)

3) ANC

Changing Political Opportunity Structure:

Each responded to a changing political opportunity structure.


South africa4

South Africa

Resistance After Soweto: (58)

Changing Political Opportunity Structure:

Each responded to a changing political opportunity structure.

Role of non-violence:

To what extent did non-violence resistance aid the success of these groups? extent where these organizations successfully


Global justice

Global Justice

Resistance After Soweto: (58)

United Democratic Front (UDF)

1) Used non-violent strategy (except in self-defense)

2) Highly decentralized, grassroots structure

3) Tactics: demonstrations, marches, rallies

4) Non-cooperation: election and rent boycotts,

5) Sought to reign and organize militant, violent youth

Result: shifted power from the state, rent boycotts forced state agencies to close, began a process of creating alternative institutions.


South africa5

South Africa

Resistance After Soweto: (58)

Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) (1979)

1) Broad agenda: rejected trade union economics

2) Endorsed “social movement unionism”

a. Linked workplace struggle to broader anti-apartheid movement.

b. Was decentralized and democratic

c. Supported radical reforms


South africa6

South Africa

Resistance After Soweto: (58)

ANC (66-67)

1) Supported armed resistance to the state

2) Never posed a military to challenge to the state

3) Was never able to create an effective para-military

structure in S. Africa.

4) It did have international support

5) In the end, it offered militant, symbolic resistance to the

South African government.


South africa7

South Africa

Transition to Democracy: Divisions Among Elites (67-68)

Sustained, and effective resistance to the apartheid led to splits among S. African political elites about the desirability of continuing the policies.

Hard-Liners (“Securocrats”) against Reformers

Reformers, along with the business community believed that

the country needed to end apartheid in order to thrive

economically. They gained power in the 1989 elections and in

1990 began the process of dismantling the apartheid state.


South africa8

South Africa


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