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化学与环境 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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化学与环境. 生命科学与医药化工学院:梁华定. 本章内容. 1 、环境问题 2 、人类生存的环境 3 、环境与生态平衡 4 、环境污染 5 、大气污染及防治 6 、水体污染及防治 7 、固体废弃物对环境的污染及防治 8 、居室环境 污染及防治. 第一节 环境问题. 1、人口膨胀导致过度开发 。 现今世界人口每年净增近1亿人,为了供养如此大量的人口,已出现冲破自然规律,掠夺性地开发自然资源的问题,从而导致资源耗竭、植被减少、土地沙化、水土流失,出现生态环境恶化现象。

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化学与环境

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  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 7

  • 8


  • 11

  • 2151087070108100108

  • 330.35%4

  • 420108

  • 19721992


  • 110000Km6000

  • 112KmAB 34C

  • 21252Km25Km20Km0.2ppm200300nm

  • 35286Km180K486800Km 12501750K 5800Km


2

  • 13.86Km3507141010Kg13.38Km3 96.51.29Km3 0.0010.48Km3 3.50.35Km3 70300.007

  • 370150 Km

  • 430100


  • 1

  • 1

  • 2 ABC

  • 3

  • 4


  • 1

  • 1

  • N2 78.09%; O2 20.95%; Ar 0.93% CO2; H2O() SOx;NOx ;CxHy;H2S;CO

  • 2

  • 1952125947031956195719622


  • 8121940194440001955400197012875(O3NOxSO2CO

  • 196125301055001019641967197281710

  • 19482859114315171120



  • 199082701991117224228

  • 8.81010003600

  • 110024000100

  • 2950180190019911161000

  • 325.7CO2110.5NO22.6CO6CH47.5.


2

  • 1945199019 .6176002000230260

  • a950100 b1325c

  • 3

  • 11900242m31970700m34819953240Km31001997120013253040655m3


2

  • 3

  • 414

  • 1956

  • 1955

  • 1968


4

  • 1 1862 1962 1972 766055 38 2820.7(2000

  • 3540000 Km3

  • 20380011090001801979130198962.551000


2

  • 11930

  • 2

  • 3

  • 3

  • 12318000480000


4

  • DDT0.000003ppm0.04ppm0.5ppm2.0ppm2.5ppm


  • 1

  • 1A

  • 10um

  • 10umCaCO3,ZnO,PbO2,

  • 13000.15mg/m3

  • B 10um


2SO2SO3

  • 5198020.15mg/m3

  • ABCDEF

  • 3


50000.15mg/m3

  • ANOB NO250100ppm1100200ppm500ppm210 C NO2DE

  • 4

  • COCH4COCO0.6

  • CO41.00mg/m3

  • COCO2


5HC

  • 24 ONOO3

  • 6

  • O3 O3

  • Cl2HClSiF4


2

  • 2.1

  • 1

  • 1202030400.3-0.440600.3800.6A0.6B

  • 2CO25624CH411N2O6

  • 3

  • 1880 1960 1971 1988 cm3/m3 248 314 330 350 (0.4%)


2

  • 11.5-4.520165cm130.61015cm1987300km213

  • 186619551400m2000m1843193710m1300km22.848km2

  • 203020cm65cm1m1001000


2

  • 3.55

  • 3

  • 151209005001500


4

  • AB3 4423

  • 3

  • 1AB

  • 22040cm3050cm34Km300Km2

  • 3


4

  • 1896198519926

  • 1CO2

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


--

2.2 1

  • (O3) 16~ 488

O2+h(<243nm) O+O O2+O+M O3+M O3+h(<300nm) O2+O


2

  • .

  • O3198419857


  • 9116012199111102019952107km2

  • 20012002


  • ,799920,


3

  • AD1461051700171000

  • BO3


C

  • 60 O398

  • D


4

  • 1ABNOxCOxHCC3040kmNOx

  • 2CFCl3 +h(<226nm) CFCl2.+Cl. CF2Cl2 +h(<226nm) CF2Cl.+Cl. O3+ Cl. ClO .+ O2 ClO .+ O Cl+ O2 N2O +h(<250nm) NO+N N2O +h(<250nm) N2+O N2O + O 2NO NO+ O3 NO2+ O2

  • 19791984Nox70 CFCl3 CF2Cl25


5

  • 1985322201990619942010).8991

  • 18694

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


5

  • 1

  • 2


2.3

  • 18521872


  • pH67CO2,,

  • ,pH5.6,


1

  • 1%SO2NOx


  • SO2+ O2 2SO3 SO3+ H2O2 H2SO4

  • SO2+ H2OH2SO3 H2SO3 + O2 H2SO4

  • O3, O3

  • NO + O32NO2 NO2 + H2O HNO3 + NO HNO3 + M M(NO3)n HNO3 + NH3 NH4NO3


2

  • 21ACaMgKNaBCAlCdHg

  • 2

  • 8500180090028401711


3

  • APH3BC

  • PH3.9402602030074034

  • 4150.16mm




5

  • 2000400015005000198055

  • 3SO2NO

  • SO212

  • NONO




2.4

  • 1940

  • 1

  • 134197021952400

  • 21959800

  • 3

  • 4


2

  • 1

  • ABC

  • NONO2

  • 5kg2.1kgCO0.62kgCxHy0.11kgNOx10210CO62CxHy11NOx2 70

  • 1212


2

  • NOHCNO2O3PANNO2O3NONO2HO.HO2.NONO2 NO2OO3O3PANNONO2

  • NO2 + h(392nm) NO+O O2 + O+ M O3 +M. NO+ O3 NO2 + O2 CxHy+ O R+RCO. CxHy+ O3 RO.+RCO. +RCHO R.+ O2 ROO. RCO. + O2 ROOO. ROO. + NO NO2 + RO. ROOO. + NO2 ROOONO2(PAN)


3

  • 1NOXHCO310201015

  • 2

  • 3HO


  • 34235L4050L

  • 0.63 4360100201977

  • 1263803260031488264953380370


  • 7080

  • 83 76

  • :80 75

  • 22


  • ,;

  • 2.53.0Kg,.


  • ,


  • 30,75,,10


  • () 79, 7, 1.730001000


  • WHO, 80

  • ,,


1

  • PH39477.3-8.3

  • 1

  • ABC



  • ,,,,,


  • , , ,?



  • .,



()

  • :


  • ()


  • . EC-,,()75.


  • pH4,pH8,


  • ,.,,,,,,


  • 15 5 (mg/L) PH Fe Mn Cu Zn 6.5-8.5 450 0.3 0.1 1.0 1.0 0.002 0.3 (mg/L) As Se Hg Cd Cr Pb 1.0 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.05 0.1 100mg3L 0.3mg/L.

  • 2

  • 1


2

  • APH6.5-8.57.0-8.55.1-8.5;

  • B

  • Hg:0.001mg/L,0.05mg/L5056601959

  • Cd:0.01mg/L,0.1mg/L


195519722030cm1968128197779

  • Cr :0.05mg/L,0.5mg/L

  • Pb :0.05mg/L,1.0mg/L

  • As :0.05mg/L,0.5mg/L

  • CN- :0.05mg/L,0.5mg/L

  • Mn:19391115111481291217380


  • mg/L >7.5mg/L >10mg/L


  • 19989183000


F

  • ug/L 0.1 0.02 0.2 0.02 3

  • 196831968


  • ()(Dioxin)(),()()21050100,


()

  • 19995,() (),()


()

  • ()()(),


()

  • (),,1(28.35)()1001(28.35)()100


  • 1000-1500500150100100-300m/h250,10-15,5-7.

  • 1991100;1970-199010001010


  • 1986111,12504km/h8

  • 1982125,10003

  • I


3


  • 0.1mm





  • :6002800kw:604.5


  • 22.4%,200



  • ,,.,,



  • ;

  • ;

  • ;


  • 1727;

  • 40%70%;

  • 1000 ppm;


  • 0.15mg/m2;

  • 50dB;

  • 3h;

  • ;


  • ;

  • ;


  • ,,,,,,


  • ,,,,,

  • ,

  • ,,,,?


  • ,,,86,60,


  • 300,:.,,,



  • 1

  • 1


  • 2

  • 3


  • 4

  • 20210Po210Pb210Bi1/3


URa-226Pb-210Po-210Po-210.510-13Curie/g.


2

  • 1


  • 2


  • 3

  • 4


  • 5


3


  • ,


  • ,





  • :(35),


4

  • 25.03g/h(20g/h)


  • 50020


  • , .



  • ,,.,,,46


  • ,,,,


  • ,30mg/m3,.,.,(27).


  • 50%55%


,


5

  • VCD

  • 1


2

  • A

  • 32.7g/m2

  • ,


3



4



6

  • 250

  • SO2As2O3NaFHClCO2



  • SO2CO2NOXCOSiO2As2O3Fe2O3CaO226228210210210


  • 455CO2CONOxSO2

  • 3-5SO2NOxCO93


  • 250200


  • . ,,.


  • 400800[],[],


  • ,[]1000g/m3.


  • ,,270[]200,[]


  • []g/Kg):

  • :1.010.5

  • :1.77.5;

  • :3.311.1;

  • :5.3760;

  • ():50.4


  • UTh0.8g/gPo-210Po-21050


  • ()POLONIUMpoland1898


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