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TED 316 – Structural Design PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Construction Materials Masonry. TED 316 – Structural Design. Building of structures from individual units Common materials: Brick Stone Marble Granite Concrete block Glass block. MASONRY. Walls of buildings Retaining walls Monuments Brick and block are most commonly used

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TED 316 – Structural Design

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Construction Materials

Masonry

TED 316 – Structural Design


  • Building of structures from individual units

  • Common materials:

    • Brick

    • Stone

    • Marble

    • Granite

    • Concrete block

    • Glass block

MASONRY


Walls of buildings

Retaining walls

Monuments

Brick and block are most commonly used

Can be weight bearing or veneer

Rebar is added to increase tensile and lateral strength

MASONRY APPLICATIONS


Increase thermal mass

Does not require painting

Heat and fire resistance

High impact resistance

Long life-cycle

MASONRY - ADVANTAGES


Degradation due to frost damage

Requires a strong foundation

Heavy

MASONRY - DISADVANTAGES


  • Good compressive strength

  • Much lower tensile strength

  • Reinforcement needed

    • Thickening wall

    • Masonry piers

    • Steel reinforcement

MASONRY – STRUCTURAL LIMITATIONS


  • Masonry units installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall

  • Decorative not structural

  • Common materials

    • Brick

    • Stone

  • Attached with brick ties

MASONRY - VENEER


  • Air gap

  • Waterproofing

    • Water-resistant surface

    • Weep holes

  • Interior insulation

    • Fiberglass for stud walls

    • Foam board for block

    • Takes advantage of thermal mass

MASONRY - VENEER


Building material – mortar bond not critical

Friction provides strength

Grooves and keys add strength

Mortar-less masonry

DRY SET MASONRY (DRY STONE)


  • Economical

  • Limited applications

    • Low

    • Thick

  • Susceptible to earthquakes

  • Reinforcement needed

SOLID MASONRY


  • Commonly used

    • Granite

    • Slate

    • Limestone

    • Sandstone

    • Marble

STONE


  • Common forms

    • Crushed

    • Sand

    • Pea gravel

    • Rip rap

    • Fieldstone

    • Dimensional stone

    • Rubble

    • Flagstone

STONE


  • Characteristics

    • Strength

      • High compression

      • Low tension

    • Hardness – varies

    • Workability – relates to hardness

    • Durability

    • Appearance

    • Accessibility

    • Indigenous

STONE


  • Categories

    • Sun-dried bricks

    • Kiln burned bricks

      • Building bricks

      • Refractory bricks

BRICK


  • Types

    • Common brick

    • Face brick

    • Glazed face brick

    • Fire brick

    • Sand lime brick

    • Special brick

    • Paving brick

    • Omni brick

    • Sculpted brick

BRICK


  • Two or more layers

    • Horizontal rows (stretcher bricks)

    • Cross ties (header bricks)

    • Bonds (pattern of stretcher and header)

      • Common

      • English and Flemish

      • Staggered vs. non-staggered

Brick


  • Wide variety of styles and types

  • 1950s-1970s: consistency = sterile

  • 1980s on: move back to rustic look

    • Burnt bricks

    • Salvage bricks

    • Aged new bricks

    • Free, artistic style

BRICK – UNIFORMITY and RUSTICity


Cinder blocks

Concrete blocks

Hollow tile

Generically referred to as Concrete Masonry Units (CMUs)

Larger than bricks

Faster to lay

Lower water absorption rates than bricks

Blocks


  • Used as structural core for veneer walls

  • Used alone where appearance is not critical

  • Stucco covering

    • Decoration

    • Extra strength

    • Pre-colored or stained

  • Reinforcement

    • Bond beam

    • Filling hollow voids

    • Rebar and ladder-reinforcement

block


Made of glass

Structural or appearance

Provide light and/or view

Glass block


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