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CIVIL AIR PATROL PRESENTS The CAP-STK Aerospace Education Program INTRO TO SPACE COURSE. Presentation for AGI Users Conference. Prince William Composite Squadron Col M. T. McNeely. …using AGI’s Satellite Tool Kit. Why is this important?.

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CIVIL AIR PATROL PRESENTS

The CAP-STK Aerospace Education Program

INTRO TO SPACECOURSE

Presentation for AGI Users Conference

Prince William Composite Squadron

Col M. T. McNeely

…using AGI’s Satellite Tool Kit


Why is this important
Why is this important?

  • Intro to Space will enhance CAP Aerospace Education

  • Program

  • Broaden cadet’s knowledge of Space and Satellite operations

    • Cadet will gain an understanding of a variety of

    • Space fundamentals

      • Orbital Mechanics

      • Types of Orbits

      • Placing a Satellite in Orbit

      • Conducting Satellite Operations

  • Stimulate interest in the ‘Final Frontier’: THE FUTURE!!


  • Orbital mechanics lesson plan 1 part 1
    ORBITAL MECHANICSLesson Plan 1 - Part 1

    • Origins

    • Physical Laws

    • Requirements for Injection

    • Classifications of Orbits

    • Coordinate Reference Systems

    • Orbital Elements


    Physical laws kepler s 2nd law law of equal areas
    PHYSICAL LAWSKepler’s 2nd Law: Law of Equal Areas


    Physical laws kepler s 2nd law law of equal areas1

    T4

    T3

    T5

    T2

    A4

    A3

    T1

    A5

    A2

    A1

    T6

    A6

    PHYSICAL LAWSKepler’s 2nd Law: Law of Equal Areas

    The line joining the planet to the center of the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times


    Physical laws newton s 2nd law law of momentum

    F

    F

    PHYSICAL LAWSNewton’s 2nd Law: Law of Momentum

    • Change in momentum is proportional to and in the direction of the force applied

    • Momentum equals mass x velocity

    • Change in momentum gives: F = ma


    Injection requirements speed
    INJECTION REQUIREMENTSSpeed

    17,500 mi/hr

    100 miles


    Orbital elements keplerian elements
    ORBITAL ELEMENTSKeplerian Elements

    • Semi-Major Axis (Size)

    • Eccentricity (Shape)

    • Inclination

    • Right Ascension

    • Argument of Perigee

    • Epoch Time (Location within orbit)

      • True Anomaly

    (Orientation)


    Orbit classification shape conic sections
    ORBIT CLASSIFICATIONShape (Conic Sections)

    Circle

    Ellipse


    Orbit classifications eccentricity

    e = 0.75

    e = .45

    e = 0

    ORBIT CLASSIFICATIONSEccentricity

    Eccentricity = c/a


    Orbital elements keplerian elements inclination
    ORBITAL ELEMENTSKeplerian Elements: Inclination

    Equatorial Plane

    Inclination ( i )

    Orbital Plane


    Orbital elements keplerian elements right ascension

    i

    Line of Nodes

    First Point of Aries ()

    Right Ascension of the Ascending Node ()

    ORBITAL ELEMENTSKeplerian Elements: Right Ascension


    Orbital elements keplerian elements argument of perigee

    i

    Line of Nodes

    ORBITAL ELEMENTSKeplerian Elements: Argument of Perigee

    Argument of Perigee ()


    Orbital mechanics lesson plan 1 part 2
    ORBITAL MECHANICSLesson Plan 1 - Part 2

    • Ground Tracks

    • Perturbations

    • Launch Considerations

    • Orbital Maneuvers

    • De-orbit/Decay


    Ground tracks westward regression
    Ground TracksWestward Regression

    - Earth rotates east under a satellite => satellite

    appears to walk west

    - Earth rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours

    (15 degrees per hour)


    Ground tracks westward regression1
    Ground TracksWestward Regression

    C

    B

    A

    -120

    -90

    -60

    -30

    0

    30

    60

    A - time zero

    B - after one orbit

    C - after two orbits


    Ground tracks inclination
    Ground tracks Inclination

    60

    30

    45N

    0

    30

    60

    45S

    Inclination = 45 degrees

    Eccentricity ~ 0


    Ground tracks eccentricity
    Ground TracksEccentricity

    Ground Track for Molnyia orbit

    eccentricity = .7252


    Perturbations
    PERTURBATIONS

    • Definition

      • A disturbance in the regular motion of a satellite

    • Types

      • Gravitational

      • Atmospheric Drag

      • Third Body Effects

      • Solar Wind/Radiation Effects

      • Electro-magnetic


    Perturbations gravitational libration
    PERTURBATIONSGravitational: Libration

    • Ellipticity of the Earth causes gravity wells and hills

    • Stable points: 75E and 105W

      -- Himalayas and Rocky Mountains

    • Unstable points: 165E and 5W

      -- Marshall Islands and Portugal

    • Drives the requirement for stationkeeping


    Perturbations electro magnetic
    PERTURBATIONSElectro-Magnetic

    • Interaction between the Earth’s magnetic field and the satellite’s electro-magnetic field results in magnetic drag


    Launch considerations launch windows
    LAUNCH CONSIDERATIONSLaunch Windows

    • The period of time during which a satellite can be launched directly into a specific orbital plane from a specific launch site

    • Window duration driven by safety, fuel requirements, desired injection points, etc.

    • Window is centered around optimal launch time


    De orbit decay
    DE-ORBIT/DECAY

    • De-Orbit is the controlled re-entry of a satellite to a specific location

      • Used for the recovery of payload

        • Manned missions

    • Decay is uncontrolled re-entry

      • Potential impact anywhere along ground track

      • Re-entry Assessment (by Cheyenne Mountain)


    Types of orbits lesson plan 2
    TYPES OF ORBITSLesson Plan 2

    • Types of Satellites and Missions

    • Satellites vs Orbits

    • Use STK to Evaluate Orbit Type vs Mission Requirement


    Types of orbits uses of satellites
    TYPES OF ORBITS -Uses of Satellites

    • Daily Uses of Satellites

    • Big Picture

    • Affects of Altitude


    Types of orbits uses of satellites1
    TYPES OF ORBITS -Uses of Satellites

    GPS Receiver Used in Search and Rescue Missions


    Types of orbits
    TYPES OF ORBITS

    • LEO

    • MEO

    • HEO

    • GEO


    Placing a satellite in orbit lesson plan 3
    PLACING A SATELLITE IN ORBITLesson Plan 3

    • How Satellites are Launched

    • Location Advantages of Two Primary Launch Sites

    • Purpose of a Hohmann Transfer

    • Use STK to Demonstrate Concepts


    Placing satellites in orbit
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      DELTA II


    Placing satellites in orbit1
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      ATLAS 2AS


    Placing satellites in orbit2
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      TITAN IV


    Placing satellites in orbit3
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      TAURUS


    Placing satellites in orbit4
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      The

      SHUTTLE

      BOOSTER


    Placing satellites in orbit5
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Booster Types

      PEGASUS


    Placing satellites in orbit6
    PLACING SATELLITES IN ORBIT

    • Launch Constraints


    Conducting satellite operations lesson plan 4
    CONDUCTING SATELLITE OPERATIONSLesson Plan 4

    • Basic Elements of a Space System

    • Space System Functions

    • Access

    • STK Demonstrations


    Satellite operations functions
    SATELLITE OPERATIONSFUNCTIONS

    • GPS Example


    Exercises lesson plan 5
    EXERCISESLesson Plan 5

    • Apply Knowledge Concepts to Problems and Formulate Solutions

    • Demonstrate with STK


    Intro to space summary
    INTRO TO SPACESUMMARY

    • Classroom Presentations

      using Powerpoint

    • Demonstrate with STK

    • Let’s Demo !!

    The world of Space Operations awaits you!!


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