Chapter 33
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Chapter 33. Invertebrates. Fig. 33-1. Overview: Life Without a Backbone. Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone They account for 95% of known animal species. Fig. 33-2. Calcarea and Silicea. Sponges/ “Porifera”. ANCESTRAL PROTIST. Cnidaria. Mollusca/ Annelida. Common

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Chapter 33

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Chapter 33

Chapter 33

Invertebrates


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-1


Overview life without a backbone

Overview: Life Without a Backbone

  • Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone

  • They account for 95% of known animal species


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-2

Calcarea

and Silicea

Sponges/

“Porifera”

ANCESTRAL

PROTIST

Cnidaria

Mollusca/

Annelida

Common

ancestor of

all animals

Eumetazoa

Nematoda/

Arthropoda

Bilateria

Chordata/

Echinodermata


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-3a

A jelly

A sponge

Phylum Choanocytes Phylum Cnidaria

(“Porifera”)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-3a

A marine flatworm

A rotifer (LM)

Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Rotifera


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-3m

An octopus

A marine annelid

Phylum Mollusca Phylum Annelida


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-3s

A scorpion

(an arachnid)

A roundworm

Phylum Nematoda Phylum Arthropoda


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-3v

A sea urchin

A tunicate

Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata


Concept 33 1 sponges are basal animals that lack true tissues

Concept 33.1: Sponges are basal animals that lack true tissues

  • Sponges are sedentary, filter feeding animals from the phyla Calcarea and Silicea “Porifera”

  • They live in both fresh and marine waters

  • Sponges lack true tissues and organs

  • Possess collar cells to propel water through the body and strain food particles.

  • Food digested intracellularly by amebocytes

  • Most asymmetrical

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmPTM965-1c&feature=related(sponge feeding)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-4

Food particles

in mucus

Flagellum

Choanocyte

Collar

Choanocyte

Osculum

Azure vase sponge (Callyspongia

plicifera)

Spongocoel

Phagocytosis of

food particles

Amoebocyte

Pore

Spicules

Epidermis

Water

flow

Amoebocytes

Mesohyl


Concept 33 2 cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans

Concept 33.2: Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans

  • All animals except sponges and a few other groups are animals with true tissues (Eumetazoa)

  • Phylum Cnidaria: jellies, corals, sea anemones

  • Radial symmetrical carnivores

  • Diplobastic - Two body layers: ectoderm & endoderm

  • Possess gastrovascular cavity (not a complete tube) and nematocysts

  • There are two variations on the body plan: the sessile polyp and motile medusa


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-5

Mouth/anus

Tentacle

Polyp

Medusa

Gastrovascular

cavity

Gastrodermis

Mesoglea

Body

stalk

Epidermis

Tentacle

Mouth/anus


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-6

Tentacle

Cuticle

of prey

Thread

Nematocyst

“Trigger”

Thread

discharges

Thread

(coiled)

Cnidocyte


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-7

(d) Sea anemone (class

Anthozoa)

(b) Jellies (class

Scyphozoa)

(c)

Sea wasp (class

Cubozoa)

(a) Colonial polyps (class

Hydrozoa)


Conceptual summary

Conceptual Summary

  • Sponges and cnidarians are almost entirely marine and are considered primitive because they do not possess three body layers nor true organs

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkF_1r6ll54&feature=related (hydra eating)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5oHMjGqjyo (budding in hydra)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-8-1

Reproductive

polyp

Feeding

polyp

Medusa

bud

Medusa

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

(BUDDING)

Portion of

a colony

of polyps

1 mm

Key

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-8-2

Reproductive

polyp

Feeding

polyp

Medusa

bud

MEIOSIS

Gonad

Medusa

Egg

Sperm

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

(BUDDING)

Portion of

a colony

of polyps

FERTILIZATION

Zygote

1 mm

Key

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-8-3

Medusa produced

by asexual budding

Reproductive

polyp

Feeding

polyp

Medusa

bud

MEIOSIS

Gonad

Medusa

Egg

Sperm

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

(BUDDING)

Portion of

a colony

of polyps

FERTILIZATION

Zygote

Developing

polyp

1 mm

Planula

(larva)

Key

Mature

polyp

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)


Platyhelminthes flatworms

Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Acoelomates – solid body, without a body cavity

  • Bilateral symmetry and beginnings of cephalization

  • Development of true organs, tripbloblastic (three body layers); ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

  • No coelom (body cavity)

  • Digestibe tract incomplete – only one opening that braches throughout the body to distribute food

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5fx-YgcP8Gg (flatworm mating behavior – Rated R)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-9


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-10

Pharynx

Gastrovascular

cavity

Mouth

Eyespots

Ganglia

Ventral nerve cords


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-12

  • Tapeworms are parasites of vertebrates and lack a digestive system

  • Tapeworms absorb nutrients from the host’s intestine

  • Fertilized eggs, produced by sexual reproduction, leave the host’s body in feces

200 µm

Proglottids with

reproductive structures

Hooks

Sucker

Scolex


Rotifera

Rotifera

  • Pseudocoelomates – body cavity between digestibe tract and body wall is not completely lined by mesoderm

  • Rotifers have an alimentary canal, a digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus (complete digestive tract) that lies within a fluid-filled pseudocoelom

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PALgTXQOqQo&feature=related (rotifer feeding)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-13

Jaws

Crown

of cilia

Anus

Stomach

0.1 mm


Nematoda roundworms

Nematoda: Roundworms

  • Nematodes, or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, in moist tissues of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of animals

  • Pseudocoelomates

  • They have an alimentary canal, but lack a circulatory system

  • Reproduction in nematodes is usually sexual, by internal fertilization

  • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2019570087567872766# (C. elegans crawling)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-25

25 µm


Conceptual summary1

Conceptual Summary

  • Flatworms and roundworms have bilateral symmetry, the beginnings of cephalization, and three body layers with well developed tissues and organs. Phyla include many important parasites of humans.


Chapter 33

  • All of the animals that we cover from this point on are coelomates – body cavity (coelom) is completely lined by mesoderm. Groups are divided as protostomes or deuterostomes


Mollusca

Mollusca

  • Phylum Mollusca includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids

  • Basic body plan of muscular head-food, with body on top a loosely covered mantle which may secrete a shell

  • Gastropods have a well defined head, tentacles and elongated flattened foot

  • Marine and freshwater filter feeders have a body flattened between two valves of a hinged she. Bivalvia

  • Cephalopods are on the the most advanced invertebrate groups (octopus, squid, nautilus)

  • Protostomes


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-15

Nephridium

Heart

Visceral mass

Coelom

Intestine

Gonads

Mantle

Stomach

Mantle

cavity

Mouth

Shell

Radula

Anus

Gill

Radula

Mouth

Nerve

cords

Esophagus

Foot


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-16


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-17

(a) A land snail

(b) A sea slug


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-19


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-20

Coelom

Hinge area

Mantle

Gut

Heart

Adductor

muscle

Digestive

gland

Anus

Mouth

Excurrent

siphon

Shell

Water

flow

Palp

Foot

Incurrent

siphon

Mantle

cavity

Gonad

Gill


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-21

Octopus

Squid

Chambered

nautilus


Chapter 33

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBg0k9GbHiw&feature=fvwrel (squid inking)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMFqV4SJLWg (nautilus)


Annelida segmented worms

Annelida: Segmented Worms

  • Possess a coelom and closed circulatory system

  • Body segmented - septa

  • Protostomes


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-22

Cuticle

Septum

(partition

between

segments)

Epidermis

Coelom

Circular

muscle

Metanephridium

Longitudinal

muscle

Anus

Dorsal vessel

Chaetae

Intestine

Fused

nerve

cords

Ventral

vessel

Nephrostome

Metanephridium

Clitellum

Esophagus

Crop

Pharynx

Giant Australian earthworm

Intestine

Gizzard

Cerebral ganglia

Mouth

Ventral nerve cord with

segmental ganglia

Subpharyngeal

ganglion

Blood

vessels


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-23

Parapodia


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-24


Arthropoda jointed foot

Arthropoda: (jointed foot)

  • Major evolutionary advances over other invertebrate groups include exoskeleton (chitin) and jointed appendages

  • Open circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph is circulated into the spaces surrounding the tissues and organs (fig. 42.3 pg. 900)

  • Main groups are arachnids (spiders, ticks), crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, shrimp, krill), and insects

  • Rotostomes


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-29

Cephalothorax

Abdomen

Antennae

(sensory

reception)

Thorax

Head

Swimming appendages

(one pair located

under each

abdominal segment)

Walking legs

Pincer (defense)

Mouthparts (feeding)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-30


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-31

50 µm

Scorpion

Dust mite

Web-building spider


Chapter 33

  • Arachnids have an abdomen and a cephalothorax, which has six pairs of appendages, the most anterior of which are the chelicerae

  • Gas exchange in spiders occurs in respiratory organs called book lungs

  • Many spiders produce silk, a liquid protein, from specialized abdominal glands


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-32

Stomach

Intestine

Brain

Heart

Digestive

gland

Eyes

Ovary

Poison

gland

Book lung

Anus

Gonopore

(exit for eggs)

Pedipalp

Chelicera

Spinnerets

Sperm

receptacle

Silk gland


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-33


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-34


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-35

Abdomen

Thorax

Head

Compound eye

Antennae

Heart

Cerebral ganglion

Dorsal

artery

Crop

Anus

Vagina

Malpighian

tubules

Ovary

Tracheal tubes

Mouthparts

Nerve cords


Chapter 33

  • Flight is one key to the great success of insects

  • An animal that can fly can escape predators, find food, and disperse to new habitats much faster than organisms that can only crawl

  • Many insects undergo metamorphosis during their development

  • In incomplete metamorphosis, the young, called nymphs, resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size

  • Insects with complete metamorphosis have larval stages known by such names as maggot, grub, or caterpillar

  • The larval stage looks entirely different from the adult stage

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnJA_BkPF_Y (butterfly metamorphosis)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-36

(a) Larva (caterpillar)

(b) Pupa

(c) Later-stage

pupa

(d) Emerging

adult

(e) Adult


Chapter 33

  • Most insects have separate males and females and reproduce sexually

  • Individuals find and recognize members of their own species by bright colors, sound, or odors

  • Some insects are beneficial as pollinators, while others are harmful as carriers of diseases, or pests of crops


Crustaceans

Crustaceans

  • While arachnids and insects thrive on land, crustaceans, for the most part, have remained in marine and freshwater environments

  • Crustaceans, subphylum Crustacea, typically have branched appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion

  • Most crustaceans have separate males and females


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-38

(a) Ghost crab

(b) Krill

(c) Barnacles


Conceptual summary2

Conceptual Summary

  • The chitinous exoskeleton of arthropods, with its many jointed appendages modified for a variety of jobs, proved so versatile that the arthropods have undergone impressive adaptive radiation with more species and individuals than any other phylum


Concept 33 5 echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes

Concept 33.5: Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes

  • Sea stars and other echinoderms, phylum Echinodermata, may seem to have little in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates

  • Shared characteristics define deuterostomes (Chordates and Echinoderms)

    • Radial cleavage

    • Formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite the blastopore


Echinodermata sea urchins sea stars and sea cucumbers

Echinodermata: Sea urchins, sea stars and sea cucumbers

  • Sea stars and most other echinoderms are slow-moving or sessile marine animals

  • Deuterostomes

  • Vertebrates are more closely related to echinoderms than to annelids, mollusks or arthropods based on studies of embryonic development

  • Echinoderms have a unique water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange

  • Possess a skeleton of calcium carbonate just under the skin

  • Immature have bilateral symmetry, however, most adults have pentaradial symmetry

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A100m5EpfFI&feature=related (sea star feeding)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-39

Stomach

Anus

Spine

Gills

Central disk

Digestive glands

Madreporite

Radial

nerve

Gonads

Ring

canal

Ampulla

Podium

Radial canal

Tube

feet


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40a

(a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40b

(b) A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40c

(c) A sea urchin (class Echinoidea)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40d

(d) A feather star (class Crinoidea)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40e

(e) A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea)


Chapter 33

Fig. 33-40f

(f) A sea daisy (class Concentricycloidea)


Chordates

Chordates

  • Phylum Chordata consists of two subphyla of invertebrates as well as hagfishes and vertebrates

  • Chordates share many features of embryonic development with echinoderms, but have evolved separately for at least 500 million years


You should now be able to

You should now be able to:

  • List the characteristics of the phylum “Porifera”

  • List the characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria that distinguish it from other animal phyla

  • List the characteristics of Platyhelminthes

  • List the characteristics of Mollusca

  • List the characteristics of Annelida

  • List the characteristics of Nematoda

  • List three features that account for the success of Arthropods

  • Describe the developmental similarities between echinoderms and chordates


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