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Citizens, stakeholders and designers: Modeling for user diversity. Florence Pontico Marco Winckler http://liihs.irit.fr/ { pontico, winckler }@irit.fr. eGovernment design / model-based approach / modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives.

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citizens stakeholders and designers modeling for user diversity

Citizens, stakeholders and designers:Modeling for user diversity

Florence Pontico

Marco Winckler

http://liihs.irit.fr/

{pontico, winckler}@irit.fr

e government administrative e procedures

eGovernment design /model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

e-Governmentadministrative e-Procedures
  • DefinitionWeb application that provides support to the remote achievement of an administrative procedure
  • Advantages
    • For the citizen: Free access, any time, any place
    • For the administration: Better and more modern image of the administration / Facilitates procedure modifications (e.g. due to new regulations)
    • For both: Less paper to handle and archive / Facilitates procedure monitoring / More speed and efficiency (e.g. no postal delay)
  • Examples
    • Local level: child enrolment at the holiday centre
    • National level: income-tax return
    • International level: visa application
e government particularities constraints

eGovernment design /model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

e-Governmentparticularities&constraints
  • Ethical (and legal) constraints
    • Security: authentication of users, data protection at every step (use, transport, storage, archive)
    • Accessibility: anyone must be able to use the application whatever his handicap may be (blind, elderly people etc.)
    • Help and guidance to the user whose profile is poorly known (only his purpose towards the application is clear: achieve a procedure)
  • Special needs for a support tool
    • Usability: support to the communication between stakeholders
    • Rules checking: validity, coherence, ergonomics, simulation
    • Method for a guidance in administrative eProcedures design
    • Flexibility
e government user diversity 1 2

eGovernment design /model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

e-Governmentuser diversity (1/2)
  • Development team (designers)
    • Involved in the design: project managers / developers /graphic designers / domain experts
    • Set up e-services according to technical and legal constraints
    • Manage usability
  • Citizens
    • Individuals, firms, associations
    • Universal access to information
    • Find availability of e-services and use that safely
  • Administrative clerks
    • In charge of the treatment of the procedure
    • Primary contact for answering citizens’ claims
    • Involvement might require re-organization of their work
e government user diversity 2 2
e-Governmentuser diversity (2/2)

≠ viewpoints, backgrounds & interests

  • Appropriate modeling support is necessary to:
    • Collect and organize user requirements (and constraints)
    • Improve communications inter- user categories (e.g. wizards)
    • Communicate new ideas
    • Abstract views of the applications (to think about Interaction not about UI design)
examples of modeling techniques

SWC: navigation model

1. submit

paper

Web

Designer

HTML

programmer

End-user

UML use cases

2. inform

problems

Author

3. Find

solution

4. Correct

problems

YAWL: workflow model

Advanced

programmer

CTT: task models

[nb_papers]

[nb_accepted_papers]

[nb_papers]

Out top

In top

Record

submission

Call for papers

Record final

submission

Review

submission

[nb_reviewers]

In Review

Submission

Collect

review results

Determine acceptance

Notify author

Out Review

Submission

Perform the review

Examples of modeling techniques
which models multi model based specification

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

which models?multi model-based specification
  • Application (interactive system)navigation between web pages & scripts
  • Task / Activityactivities achieved by users to reach a goal
  • Procedureglobal vision of the procedure as a sequence of automated and manual operations achieved by several agents using a set of resources
  • Resourcerepresentation of the resources (data, documents, tools) of the application environment
  • Organizationalroles definition, way to allocate them to agents, responsibilities and skills
which models

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

Organizational model

AGENT Paul

ROLE Reviewer

ALLOCATION MODE Paul applied to be reviewer and he was selected by the conference organizer.

SKILLS He is allocated a set of submissions he has to review

ACCESS RIGHTS A reviewer can read modify delete any submission he was allocated to.

Resource model

PERFORMED BYThe decision of acceptance is taken by the meta-reviewer

SUPPORT ‘Evaluate a submission’ activity uses submission and review

RESOURCES Author’s details / Reviews / Submissions TOOLS Chat application for meta-review

ACTIVITY Evaluate a submission

EVENT New submission to evaluate

TRIGGERS Validate a review  notify the meta reviewer

SUB ACTIVITY Validate a reviewє Evaluate a submission

USES To evaluate a submission, the reviewer reads the paper that was sent by the authors.

TASK Evaluate a submission

SUB TASK Read the submissionє Evaluate a submission

Process model

Task model

which models?

Information for conference management specification is spread among models and on the relations between them

slide9

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

process modeling why? what? how?

  • Administration viewpoint: procedural, functional, global, objective description…NB: definition of the coordination between roles and resources, the common goal being decomposed into validation steps.
  • Different modeling trends
    • Controlled activity flow (e.g. YAWL [Van der Aalst 02])
    • Service sharing between agents (e.g. OSSAD [Dumas 90])
    • Information circulation among work stations (e.g. ECF [Karbe 90])

slide10

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

task modeling why? what? how?

  • User viewpoint: specification of steps of the procedure in terms of users’ activities, subjective description…NB: When the activity of an user is spread among procedure stages, his task model permits the anticipation of his whole participation into the procedure (including e.g. data to collect).
  • Different modeling trends
    • User’s knowledge (e.g. TKS [Johnson 92])
    • Environment resources (e.g. MAD [Pierret-Golbreich 89])
    • Elements of the interface (e.g. CTT [Paternò 98])

slide11

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

modeling requirements what should be specified

  • User-centered description of the activityhow an activity is actually led in this environment
  • Intervention of several users in an activityhow different agents interact, coordinate and take benefit of other agents’ skills and responsibilities
  • Role definitionwhat the skills and responsibilities of this role are, how it is allocated to a particular agent
  • Use of a resourcestructure of the data involved, use of secondary tools during the procedure (e.g. calculator)
slide12

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

modeling requirements eGovernment criteria evaluation

Process

Task

Both

Existing modeling methods coverage of eGovernment specification criteria

conclusions perspectives

eGovernment design/model-based approach /modeling requirements / tool requirements / perspectives

conclusions & perspectives…
  • Review
    • Administrative e-Procedures are complex applications with strong design and specification requirements
    • Appropriate models can help designers to communicate with people involved in the process (see MERISE experience)
      • Formal methods precise but rather to understand
      • Informal description techniques lack support for completely describing users
    • Multi model based specification is required
    • No existing modeling method/tool is adapted
current and future work
Current and Future work
  • Use MDE approach to wave different models
  • Provide consistency among models
  • Case studies for identifying which graphical representations of information is the more appropriated to each category of participants
  • Our goal:
    • Provide methodological support
    • Provide wizards based on models that can guide users through the applications
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