Lab  12

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2. Female Reproductive System. Produces gametes (eggs)Provides space and nutrients for the developing fetusDelivers the child into the outer environment. 3. Ovary - where gametes produced. 3-4 cm long, enclosed by tunica albuginea Cortex: produces gametes (oocytes)Oogenesis: process of oocyte pr

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Lab 12

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1. Lab # 12 Female Reproductive System

2. 2 Female Reproductive System Produces gametes (eggs) Provides space and nutrients for the developing fetus Delivers the child into the outer environment

3. 3 Ovary - where gametes produced 3-4 cm long, enclosed by tunica albuginea Cortex: produces gametes (oocytes) Oogenesis: process of oocyte production One egg/month produced Medulla Blood vessels Stroma - background substance

4. 4 Fig. 28.2 Ovary Ovary is suspended in pelvic cavity by ovarian and suspensory ligament. suspensory ligament houses the ovarian a and v. Ovary has 2 layers - medulla and cortex; it is enclosed by the tunica albuginea and superficial to that is the germinal epithelium. Oocyte development - Eggs start as primoridal follicles. they begin to mature and are known as primary follicles, which contain oocytes; these then begin to mature more - known as secondary follicles - outer cell layer is the Thecal cell layer, inner layer is the granulosa layer (so named because of granules...). Mature follicles are oocyte, surrounded by antrum, granulosa layers and thecal layers. These are ready to be ovulated. at ovulation, the ovarian wall bursts, the oocyte is released into the uterine tube, and the remaining cells (thecal and granulosa cells) then form the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone until either implantation or menstruation. IF no implantation, the corpus luteum becomes scar like tissue known as the corpus albicans. Ovary Ovary is suspended in pelvic cavity by ovarian and suspensory ligament. suspensory ligament houses the ovarian a and v. Ovary has 2 layers - medulla and cortex; it is enclosed by the tunica albuginea and superficial to that is the germinal epithelium. Oocyte development - Eggs start as primoridal follicles. they begin to mature and are known as primary follicles, which contain oocytes; these then begin to mature more - known as secondary follicles - outer cell layer is the Thecal cell layer, inner layer is the granulosa layer (so named because of granules...). Mature follicles are oocyte, surrounded by antrum, granulosa layers and thecal layers. These are ready to be ovulated. at ovulation, the ovarian wall bursts, the oocyte is released into the uterine tube, and the remaining cells (thecal and granulosa cells) then form the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone until either implantation or menstruation. IF no implantation, the corpus luteum becomes scar like tissue known as the corpus albicans.

5. 5 Oogenesis Follicle - circular structures in ovary with oocyte Primary, Secondary, Mature Antrum - fluid-filled space within follicle where oocyte is Corpus Luteum produces progesterone Corpus Albicans if no pregnancy occurs Atresia Absence or degeneration of ovarian follicles before maturity reached

6. 6 microscopic view of ovary. primordial follicles surrounded by stroma. Primary follicles - outer cell layer of follicular cells and oocyte in the centermicroscopic view of ovary. primordial follicles surrounded by stroma. Primary follicles - outer cell layer of follicular cells and oocyte in the center

7. 7 Ovary

8. 8 Uterine Tubes Fimbriae 3 regions Infundibulum Ampulla Isthmus

9. 9 Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix. Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix.

10. 10 ovulation into uterine tubeovulation into uterine tube

11. 11 Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix. Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix.

12. 12 Uterus Protect, nurture growing embryo 3 layers Perimetrium – external serosa Myometrium – smooth muscle Endometrium – sloughed off during menstruation

13. 13 Uterus Endometrium - two layers Functional layer Shed during menstruation Spiral arterioles and uterine glands Basal layer Straight arterioles

14. 14 Functional layer composed of spiral arterioles and uterine glands which appear as wavy lines at the edge of the tissue The basal layer has straight arterioles

15. 15 Slide of Endometrial Lining -- See photo in book, which I like better - 47.6Slide of Endometrial Lining -- See photo in book, which I like better - 47.6

16. 16 Female Reproductive Anatomy Location related to body Eggs made in Ovaries Ovulation, in humans, is _____________; one ovary one month, the other the next. Egg is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the Fimbriae. Oocyte travels to uterus where it will either be implanted or sloughed off in menstruation. Vagina -canal and orifice; canal is lined with involutions known as rugae, and superior portion of vagina, at cervix, is know as the fornix - anterior and posterior. External anatomy is collectively known as the vulva. Vulva (anterior to posterior) is made of the mons pubis - adipose pad that overlays the pubic symphysis. Posterior to mons is the clitoris - erectile tissue similiar to c. cavernosa in males, surrounded by prepuce. posterior to clitoris is urethral opening, posterior to that is the vaginal orifice, which is partially enclosed by the hymen - a mucous membrane. lateral to the vaginal orifice are the labia minora. the space between the labia is the vestibule. lateral to the labia minora are the labia majora. Female Reproductive Anatomy Location related to body Eggs made in Ovaries Ovulation, in humans, is _____________; one ovary one month, the other the next. Egg is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the Fimbriae. Oocyte travels to uterus where it will either be implanted or sloughed off in menstruation. Vagina -canal and orifice; canal is lined with involutions known as rugae, and superior portion of vagina, at cervix, is know as the fornix - anterior and posterior. External anatomy is collectively known as the vulva. Vulva (anterior to posterior) is made of the mons pubis - adipose pad that overlays the pubic symphysis. Posterior to mons is the clitoris - erectile tissue similiar to c. cavernosa in males, surrounded by prepuce. posterior to clitoris is urethral opening, posterior to that is the vaginal orifice, which is partially enclosed by the hymen - a mucous membrane. lateral to the vaginal orifice are the labia minora. the space between the labia is the vestibule. lateral to the labia minora are the labia majora.

17. 17 Hormones/Menstrual Cycle Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH): From Pituitary gland Stimulates ovarian follicles to secrete estrogen and progesterone – important in the first half of menstrual cycle Stimulates the development of the follicle Luteinizing Hormone (LH) From pituitary Triggers release of egg Maintains the corpus luteum – estrogen and progesterone in the second half of the menstrual cycle These hormones stimulate thickening of endometrium When they drop off, the functional layer sloughs off = menstruation

18. 18 Hormonal cycle of human menstruation. This is one of the most complex and beautifully integrated communication systems known. presented here is just a brief simplification of the system. I need you to know the major hormones. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of GnRH. These two hormones increase the levels of estrogen and help oocytes to mature from primary follicles into mature oocytes. As Estrogen levels increase, the endometrium prepares for implantation. Just prior to ovulation, there's a spike in estrogen, followed closely by a spike in FSH and LH levels. These cause ovulation to occur. After ovulation, FSH, LH levels drop and Estrogen levels drop. The corpus lutuem secretes progesterone at high levels - the endometrium is "really" getting ready for implantation and pregnancy. If no implantation occurs, the corpus lutem becomes the corpus albicans, progesterone levels drop, estrogen levels rise and then fall, and menstruation begins - lasting anywhere from three to 7 days. The functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed off, and a new menstrual cycle begins. Note the decrease in estrogen levels prior to ovulation - is is thought that estrogen plays a large role in female-specific mood disorders - like premenstrual dysphoria, post-partum depression, increased likelihood of mood disorders in pubescent girls, and increased depression in post-menopausal women. Hormonal cycle of human menstruation. This is one of the most complex and beautifully integrated communication systems known. presented here is just a brief simplification of the system. I need you to know the major hormones. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of GnRH. These two hormones increase the levels of estrogen and help oocytes to mature from primary follicles into mature oocytes. As Estrogen levels increase, the endometrium prepares for implantation. Just prior to ovulation, there's a spike in estrogen, followed closely by a spike in FSH and LH levels. These cause ovulation to occur. After ovulation, FSH, LH levels drop and Estrogen levels drop. The corpus lutuem secretes progesterone at high levels - the endometrium is "really" getting ready for implantation and pregnancy. If no implantation occurs, the corpus lutem becomes the corpus albicans, progesterone levels drop, estrogen levels rise and then fall, and menstruation begins - lasting anywhere from three to 7 days. The functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed off, and a new menstrual cycle begins. Note the decrease in estrogen levels prior to ovulation - is is thought that estrogen plays a large role in female-specific mood disorders - like premenstrual dysphoria, post-partum depression, increased likelihood of mood disorders in pubescent girls, and increased depression in post-menopausal women.

19. 19 Menstrual Cycle Menstrual phase (days 1-5) Sloughing off of the functional layer in the uterus Proliferative phase (days 6-14) Egg development Endometrium increases in thickness Egg is released at the end of 14 days Secretory phase (days 15-26) Glycogen is produced in the endometrium

20. 20 Menstrual Cycle After ovulation progesterone levels increase At the end of the menstrual cycle progesterone levels drop and causing the functional layer of the endometrium to slough off

21. 21 Hormonal cycle of human menstruation. This is one of the most complex and beautifully integrated communication systems known. presented here is just a brief simplification of the system. I need you to know the major hormones. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of GnRH. These two hormones increase the levels of estrogen and help oocytes to mature from primary follicles into mature oocytes. As Estrogen levels increase, the endometrium prepares for implantation. Just prior to ovulation, there's a spike in estrogen, followed closely by a spike in FSH and LH levels. These cause ovulation to occur. After ovulation, FSH, LH levels drop and Estrogen levels drop. The corpus lutuem secretes progesterone at high levels - the endometrium is "really" getting ready for implantation and pregnancy. If no implantation occurs, the corpus lutem becomes the corpus albicans, progesterone levels drop, estrogen levels rise and then fall, and menstruation begins - lasting anywhere from three to 7 days. The functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed off, and a new menstrual cycle begins. Note the decrease in estrogen levels prior to ovulation - is is thought that estrogen plays a large role in female-specific mood disorders - like premenstrual dysphoria, post-partum depression, increased likelihood of mood disorders in pubescent girls, and increased depression in post-menopausal women. Hormonal cycle of human menstruation. This is one of the most complex and beautifully integrated communication systems known. presented here is just a brief simplification of the system. I need you to know the major hormones. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of GnRH. These two hormones increase the levels of estrogen and help oocytes to mature from primary follicles into mature oocytes. As Estrogen levels increase, the endometrium prepares for implantation. Just prior to ovulation, there's a spike in estrogen, followed closely by a spike in FSH and LH levels. These cause ovulation to occur. After ovulation, FSH, LH levels drop and Estrogen levels drop. The corpus lutuem secretes progesterone at high levels - the endometrium is "really" getting ready for implantation and pregnancy. If no implantation occurs, the corpus lutem becomes the corpus albicans, progesterone levels drop, estrogen levels rise and then fall, and menstruation begins - lasting anywhere from three to 7 days. The functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed off, and a new menstrual cycle begins. Note the decrease in estrogen levels prior to ovulation - is is thought that estrogen plays a large role in female-specific mood disorders - like premenstrual dysphoria, post-partum depression, increased likelihood of mood disorders in pubescent girls, and increased depression in post-menopausal women.

22. 22 Ligaments Suspensory ligament Attaches ovary to lumbar vertebrae Ovarian ligament Attaches ovary to uterus Broad ligament attaches uterus to pelvic wall Round ligament Attaches uterus to abdominal wall

23. 23 Uterine Ligaments Ovarian ligaments attaches each ovary to the uterus suspensory ligaments attach ovaries to lumbar region broad ligament anchors uterus to lateral pelvic wall round ligaments attaches uterus to anterior body wall at ingiunal canal cardinal ligament attaches uterus to_________ uterosacral ligament attaches uterus to sacral regionUterine Ligaments Ovarian ligaments attaches each ovary to the uterus suspensory ligaments attach ovaries to lumbar region broad ligament anchors uterus to lateral pelvic wall round ligaments attaches uterus to anterior body wall at ingiunal canal cardinal ligament attaches uterus to_________ uterosacral ligament attaches uterus to sacral region

24. 24 Porcine Uterus and Vagina with Ligaments Note that in most animals, the uterus is not like in humans.Porcine Uterus and Vagina with Ligaments Note that in most animals, the uterus is not like in humans.

25. 25 Vagina 8-10 cm long, very muscular Discharge of menstrual fluid Receives semen Birth canal Lined with rugae, allows for expansion Vaginal orifice and canal, join uterus at cervix Fornix - recessed region around cervix

26. 26 Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix. Secondary Oocyte (which has not yet fully undergone meiosis - which happens at fertilization) is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the fimbriae. Uterine Tube's sections are fimbriae - proximal to ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus, the most distal portion of uterine tube. Uterine Tubes join the uterus, which has three regions, the fundus (superior), body, and the cerivx (inferior portion). Uterus is made of perimetrium (superficial), myometrium, and endometrium (deep). most inferior region of the uterus is the cervix - which is where the internal os of the uterus becones the cervical canal and joins with the vagina at the external os. The vaginal canal meets with the cervix and the region of the vagina surrounding the cervix is the fornix.

27. 27 External Genitalia - the Vulva Mons pubis – adipose tissue over pubic symphysis Labia majora – outer folds of skin Labia minora – inner, form vestibule Clitoris – erectile tissue within body wall - prepuce Hymen - membrane that partially encloses the vaginal orifice Glands - lubrication Greater and lesser vestibular or Bartholin’s glands Paraurethral

28. 28 Female Reproductive Anatomy Location related to body Eggs made in Ovaries Ovulation, in humans, is _____________; one ovary one month, the other the next. Egg is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the Fimbriae. Oocyte travels to uterus where it will either be implanted or sloughed off in menstruation. Vagina -canal and orifice; canal is lined with involutions known as rugae, and superior portion of vagina, at cervix, is know as the fornix - anterior and posterior. External anatomy is collectively known as the vulva. Vulva (anterior to posterior) is made of the mons pubis - adipose pad that overlays the pubic symphysis. Posterior to mons is the clitoris - erectile tissue similiar to c. cavernosa in males, surrounded by prepuce. posterior to clitoris is urethral opening, posterior to that is the vaginal orifice, which is partially enclosed by the hymen - a mucous membrane. lateral to the vaginal orifice are the labia minora. the space between the labia is the vestibule. lateral to the labia minora are the labia majora. Female Reproductive Anatomy Location related to body Eggs made in Ovaries Ovulation, in humans, is _____________; one ovary one month, the other the next. Egg is released from ovary into the uterine tube at the Fimbriae. Oocyte travels to uterus where it will either be implanted or sloughed off in menstruation. Vagina -canal and orifice; canal is lined with involutions known as rugae, and superior portion of vagina, at cervix, is know as the fornix - anterior and posterior. External anatomy is collectively known as the vulva. Vulva (anterior to posterior) is made of the mons pubis - adipose pad that overlays the pubic symphysis. Posterior to mons is the clitoris - erectile tissue similiar to c. cavernosa in males, surrounded by prepuce. posterior to clitoris is urethral opening, posterior to that is the vaginal orifice, which is partially enclosed by the hymen - a mucous membrane. lateral to the vaginal orifice are the labia minora. the space between the labia is the vestibule. lateral to the labia minora are the labia majora.

29. 29 Mammary Glands Breast overlie pectoralis major Suspensory ligaments Milk Production Lobules Lobes Lactiferous ducts Lactiferous sinuses Nipple

30. 30 Breast under the influence of oxytocin and prolactin, mammary glands produce milk. mammary glands are grouped in lobules. these lobules are grouped in lobes (there are about 15 - 20 glands - lobules grouped into lobes - in each breast.) the lobes empty the produced milk into the lactiferous ducts, aggregate into the lactiferous sinuses. Under suckling (and sometimes not) milk is released from the nipple. nipple is surrounded by the areola.Breast under the influence of oxytocin and prolactin, mammary glands produce milk. mammary glands are grouped in lobules. these lobules are grouped in lobes (there are about 15 - 20 glands - lobules grouped into lobes - in each breast.) the lobes empty the produced milk into the lactiferous ducts, aggregate into the lactiferous sinuses. Under suckling (and sometimes not) milk is released from the nipple. nipple is surrounded by the areola.

31. 31 Midsaggital View of breastMidsaggital View of breast

32. 32 Early Stages of Fetal Development Gametes Fertilization Zygote – single cell - undergoes cleavage Morula - ball of cells Blastocyst – hollow, implants on the uterine wall outer layer (trophoblast) Inner cluster (inner cell mass)

33. 33

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