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Biology EOI next week! . EOI Review Pictures. 1. Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57. Pyramid of Energy. Heat. 0.1% Consumers. Illustrates that the amount of available energy _______ at each succeeding trophic level. 1% Consumers. Heat. 10% Consumers. Heat. decreases. 100% Producers.

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Eoi review pictures

Biology EOI next week!

EOI Review Pictures


Section 2 2 summary pages 46 57

1

Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

Pyramid of Energy

Heat

0.1%Consumers

  • Illustrates that the amount of available energy _______ at each succeeding trophic level.

1% Consumers

Heat

10%

Consumers

Heat

decreases

100% Producers

Heat

Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level.


Section 2 2 summary pages 46 571

2

Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

Pyramid of Numbers

  • Shows that population sizes ________ at each higher trophic level.

Fox (1)

decreases

Birds (25)

Grasshoppers

(250)

Grasses

(3000)


Section 2 2 summary pages 46 572

3

Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

Pyramid of Biomass

  • The total weight of living matter at each trophic level. It represents the total weight of living material available at each trophic level.

1 kilogram of human tissue

10 kilograms of beef

100 kilograms of grain


Section 2 2 summary pages 46 573

4

Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

The nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen in the atmosphere

Some excess nitrogen evaporates from soil.

Dead plant matter

Urine from animals

Decomposing organisms

Assimilated by plants

Decomposers—bacteria and fungi—break down tissues and wastes and nitrogen-containing compounds are released.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules on roots of leguminous plants fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Released to the atmosphere

Nitrogen compounds released into soils and acted upon by soil bacteria

Converted to other nitrogen compounds by soil bacteria

Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria


Section 2 check

Food Web

5

Section 2 Check

Chihuahuan raven

Honey mesquite (pods eaten by beetles)

Pronghorn antelope

Gambel quail

Jackrabbit

Desert tortoise

Coyote

(top carnivore)

Prickly pear cactus

Long-tail weasel

Roadrunner

Kangaroo rat (seed eater)

Mojave rattlesnake

ants

Red spotted toad

Mexican whiptail lizard

Texas horned lizard


Chapter assessment

6

Chapter Assessment

Water Cycle

Condensation

Evaporation

Transpiration

Precipitation

Runoff

Evaporation

Oceans

Groundwater


Section 6 1 summary pages 141 151

7

Section 6.1 Summary – pages 141-151

Covalent bond

  • Two hydrogen atoms can combine with each other by sharing their electrons.

Hydrogen molecule

  • Each atom becomes stable by _______ its electron with the other atom.

sharing


Section 6 1 summary pages 141 1511

8

Section 6.1 Summary – pages 141-151

Solution

  • a mixture in which one or more substances (______) are distributed evenly in another substance (______).

solutes

solvent

  • Sugar molecules in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water.


Summary section 2 pages 152 156

9

Summary Section 2 – pages 152-156

The results of diffusion

  • When a cell is in _________ ___________ with its environment, materials move into and out of the cell at equal rates. As a result, there is no net change in concentration inside or outside the cell.

dynamic equilibrium

Material moving out of cell equals material moving into cell


Section 10 1 summary pages 253 262

10

Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262

Mendel

  • Who chose to use the _________ in his experiments for several reasons?

garden pea

  • Garden pea plants reproduce sexually, which means that they produce male and female sex cells, called ________.

gametes


Section 10 1 summary pages 253 2621

11

The rule of dominance

Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262

  • An uppercase letter is used for the dominant allele and a lowercase letter for the recessive allele.

Short plant

Tall plant

t

t

T

T

t

T

F1

  • The dominant allele is always written first…rule of ?

All tall plants

t

T


Section 10 1 summary pages 253 2622

12

Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262

Monohybrid crosses

  • A Punnett square for this cross is two boxes tall and two boxes wide because each parent can produce two kinds of gametes for this trait.

Heterozygous

tall parent

T

t

T

t

T

t

T

T

TT

Tt

t

t

Tt

tt

T

t

Heterozygous

tall parent


Section 10 1 summary pages 253 2623

13

Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262

Dihybrid cross

Gametes from RrYy parent

Ry

RY

rY

ry

  • four boxes on each side for a total of 16 boxes.

RRYy

RRYY

RrYY

RrYy

RY

RRYy

RRYy

RrYy

Rryy

Ry

Gametes from RrYy parent

rrYy

RrYY

RrYy

rrYY

rY

RrYy

rrYy

Rryy

rryy

ry


Section 10 2 summary pages 263 273

14

Section 10.2 Summary – pages 263-273

meiosis

  • This pattern of reproduction, involving the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells, is called ________________.

Haploid gametes

(n=23)

Sperm Cell

Egg Cell

Fertilization

Multicellular

diploid adults

(2n=46)

Diploid zygote

(2n=46)

sexual reproduction


Section 2 check1

15

Section 2 Check

Homologous Chromosome

The two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell are called this. Each has genes for the same traits.

a

A

Terminal

Axial

Inflated

D

d

Constricted

T

t

Short

Tall


Section 17 1 summary pages 443 449

16

Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat


Section 17 2 summary pages 450 459

17

Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

Cladistics

Allosaurus

Velociraptor

Robin

Archaeopteryx

Sinornis

Theropods

Flight feathers;

arms as long

as legs

Feathers with

shaft, veins,

and barbs

3-toed foot;

wishbone

Down

feathers

Light bones


Life history patterns

18

Life History Patterns

  • Biologists study the factor that determines population growth—an organism’s reproductive pattern, also called its ???


Eoi review pictures

  • Limiting factors, such as availability of food, disease, predators, or lack of space, will cause population growth to slow.

  • Under these pressures, the population may stabilize in an S-shaped growth curve.

  • The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its ???

carrying capacity

19


Eoi review pictures

  • The graph of a growing population starts out slowly, then begins to resemble a J-shaped curve.

exponential

  • Illustrates _______________ population growth, meaning that as a population gets larger, it also grows at a faster rate.

Population Growth of Houseflies

Population size

One year

20


Active transport

21

Active transport

  • A) Process that requires energy in which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient

  • B)


Endocytosis

Endocytosis

22

  • A) Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell’s plasma membrane

  • B)


Exocytosis

Exocytosis

23

  • A) Active transport process by which materials are expelled from a cell

  • B)


Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion

24

  • A) Passive transport of materials across a plasma membrane by transport proteins in the plasma membrane

  • B)


Hypertonic solution

Hypertonic solution

25

  • A) In cells, solution which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell…more water inside and less water outside…water leaves the cell, causing the cell to shrink


Hypotonic solution

Hypotonic solution

26

  • A) In cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell…more water outside and less water inside…water enters the cell, causing the cell to swell


Isotonic solution

Isotonic solution

27

  • A) In cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell.


Osmosis

Osmosis

28

  • A) Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

  • B)


Passive transport

Passive transport

29

  • A) Movement of particles across a cell membrane by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move the particles

  • B)


Anaphase

Anaphase

30

  • A) 3rd phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microtubules

  • B)


Cell cycle

Cell cycle

31

  • A) Continuous sequence of growth (interphase) and division (mitosis) in a cell

  • B)


Centriole

Centriole

32

  • A) In animal cells, a pair of small cylindrical structures composed of microtubules that duplicate during interphase and move to opposite ends of the cell during prophase

  • B)


Centromere

Centromere

33

  • A) Cell structure that joins 2 sister chromatids of a chromosome

  • B)


Chromatin

Chromatin

34

  • A) Long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes

  • B)


Chromosome

Chromosome

35

  • A) Cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells

  • B)


Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

36

  • A) Cell process following mitosis or meiosis in which the cell’s cytoplasm divides and separates into new cells.

  • B)


Metaphase

Metaphase

37

  • A) 2nd phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle and chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber.

  • B)


Mitosis

Mitosis

38

  • A) Period of nuclear cell division in which 2 daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes.

  • B)


Prophase

Prophase

39

  • A) 1st and longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes.

  • B)


Sister chromatid

Sister chromatid

40

  • A) Identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis; the halves are held together by a centromere.

  • B)

Sister chromatids


Spindle

Spindle

41

  • A) Cell structures composed of microtubules; forms between the centrioles during prophase and shorten during anaphase, pulling apart sister chromatids.

  • B)


Telophase

Telophase

42

  • A) Final phase of mitosis during which new cells prepare for their own independent existence.

  • B)


Eoi review pictures

Gene

43

  • A) Segment of DNA that controls the protein production and the cell cycle.

  • B)


Eoi review pictures

44

  • Incomplete Dominance

  • appearance of a 3rd phenotype.

  • Example: A homozygous red-flowered plant (RR) is crossed with a homozygous white-flowered plant (R’R’), all of the F1 generation offspring will have PINK flowers (RR’).

R R

R’

R’


Eoi review pictures

45

  • Codominance

  • Expression of both alleles

  • Example: Black (BB) rooster crossed with a white (WW) hen = checkered (BW) black and white. (Incomplete dominance would have been gray!)


Eoi review pictures

46

  • Traits controlled by more than 2 alleles have this…

  • multiple alleles

  • Example: Pigeons have 3 alleles that control feather color.

  • BA = ash red

  • B = blue

  • b = chocolate


Eoi review pictures

47

  • The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans are ___ ____________and determine the sex of the offspring.

    XX = female

    XY = male

sex chromosomes


Eoi review pictures

48

  • Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes

  • sex-linked traits


Eoi review pictures

49

  • Polygenic inheritance

  • pattern of a trait that is controlled by 2 or more genes.

  • Example: eye color, skin color, height (AaBbCc…)


Eoi review pictures

50

  • Pedigree

  • graphic of genetic inheritance

= Male

= Parents

= Female

= Siblings

= affected Male

= affected Female

= known heterozygous “carriers”

= Mating

= Death


Section 15 1 summary pages 393 403

51

Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403

Darwin

________ on HMS Beagle


Section 15 1 summary pages 393 4031

52

Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403

camouflage

  • ____________, an adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings.

  • Because of this, organisms are not easily found by predators and they survive to reproduce.


Section 15 1 summary pages 393 4032

53

Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403

  • Structural features with a common evolutionary origin are called ____________________.

homologous structures

  • can be similar in arrangement, in function, or in both.

Crocodile

forelimb

Bird

wing

Whale

forelimb


Section 15 1 summary pages 393 4033

54

Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403

  • The body parts of organisms that DO NOT have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function are called ___________________.

analogous structures


Section 15 1 summary pages 393 4034

55

Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403

Vestigial structures

  • such as pelvic bones in the baleen whale, are evidence of evolution because they show ________ change over time.

structural


Section 15 2 summary pages 404 413

56

Section 15.2 Summary– pages 404-413

  • _________________ is a natural selection that favors average individuals in a population.

Stabilizing selection

Normal variation

Selection for

average size

spiders


Section 15 2 summary pages 404 4131

57

Section 15.2 Summary– pages 404-413

  • _________________occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait.

Directional selection

Selection for longer beaks

Normal

variation


Section 15 2 summary pages 404 4132

58

Section 15.2 Summary– pages 404-413

  • In ________________, individuals with either extreme of a trait’s variation are selected for.

disruptive selection

Selection for

light limpets

Normal variation

Selection for

dark limpets


Section 9 2 summary pages 225 230

59

Light-Dependent Reactions

Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230

Sun

Light energy transfers to chlorophyll.

  • At each step along the transport chain, the electrons lose energy…this energy may be used to make ATP or to hum hydrogen ions into the thylakoid disc. (2)

Chlorophyll passes energy down through the electron transport chain.

Energized electrons provide energy that

splits

H2O

bonds

to ADP

P

  • Electrons are re-energized in a 2nd photosystem and passed down a 2nd electron transport chain.

forming ATP

oxygen

released

H+

NADP+

NADPH

for the use in light-independent reactions


Section 9 3 summary pages 231 237

60

Glycolysis

Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237

  • A series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three-carbon compound.

  • The source of energy for the first step comes from the conversion of 2 molecules of ATP to 2 molecules of ADP. (1)

4ATP

2ADP

2 Pyruvic acid

2ATP

4ADP + 4P

Glucose

2PGAL

2NAD+

2NADH + 2H+


Section 9 1 summary pages 221 224

61

Forming and Breaking Down ATP

Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224

  • The energy of ATP becomes available to a cell when the ________________________.

bonds are broken down

P

P

P

Adenosine

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

P

P

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

P

P

Adenosine


Eoi review pictures

This is the SCIENTIFICMETHOD…6 steps…you should really learn it

  • Make Observations

  • Identify a Problem

  • Hypothesis

  • Experiment

  • Results/Data

  • Conclusions/Findings

62


Data information expressed in numbers

63

15 g.

8ml.

25 students

_____________ Datainformation expressed in numbers

Quantitative

100% of students pass the biology EOI!!!

20 eggs

137.2 Km.


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