Chapter 8 political geography
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Chapter 8 Political geography. Key issue #1 where are states located?. Where Are States Located?. Problems of defining states Almost all habitable land belongs to a country today In 1940, there were about 50 countries Today, there are 193 countries (as evidenced by United Nations membership)

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Chapter 8 Political geography

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Chapter 8 political geography

Chapter 8Political geography


Key issue 1 where are states located

Key issue #1where are states located?


Where are states located

Where Are States Located?

  • Problems of defining states

    • Almost all habitable land belongs to a country today

      • In 1940, there were about 50 countries

      • Today, there are 193 countries (as evidenced by United Nations membership)

    • Some places are difficult to classify

      • Korea: One state or two?

      • Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)

      • Claims to polar regions


United nations members

United Nations Members

Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003.

Montenegro was added in 2006 and South Sudan in 2011.


Antarctica national claims

Antarctica: National Claims

Fig. 8-2: Antarctica is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it.


Where are states located1

Where Are States Located?

  • Varying sizes of states

    • State size varies considerably

      • Largest state = Russia

        • 11 percent of the world’s land area

      • Smallest state = Monaco

        • Microstate = states with very small land areas

          • About two dozen microstates


Where are states located2

Where Are States Located?

  • Development of the state concept

    • Ancient states

      • The Fertile Crescent

      • City-state

    • Early European states

    • Colonies

      • Three motives: “God, gold, and glory”

      • Today = some remaining colonies


The fertile crescent

The Fertile Crescent

Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.


Colonial possessions 1914

Colonial Possessions, 1914

Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.


Colonial possessions 2003

Colonial Possessions, 2003

Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.


Key issue 2 why do boundaries cause problems

Key issue #2why do boundaries cause problems?


Why do boundaries between states cause problems

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Shapes of states

    • Five basic shapes:

      • Compact

        • Pros…Cons…Examples…

      • Elongated

        • Pros…Cons…Examples…

      • Prorupted

        • Pros…Cons…Examples…

      • Perforated

        • Pros…Cons…Examples…

      • Fragmented

        • Pros…Cons…Examples…


Chapter 8 political geography

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Landlocked states-lacks a direct outlet to the sea b/c it is completely surrounded by other countries.

Green denotes the 42 landlocked countries located in the world.Purple denotes the 2 doubly landlocked countries in the world.


African states

African States

Fig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.


India the tin bigha corridor

India: The Tin Bigha Corridor

Fig. 8-7: The Tin Bigha corridor fragmented two sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.


Why do boundaries between states cause problems1

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Types of boundaries

    • Physical

      • Desert boundaries

      • Mountain boundaries

      • Water boundaries


Physical boundaries

Physical Boundaries


Chapter 8 political geography

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

Frontier-a zone where no state exercises complete political control.

**The only regions that still have frontiers, rather than boundaries, are Antarctica and the Arabian Peninsula.


Frontiers in the arabian peninsula

Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula

Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.


Chapter 8 political geography

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Cultural

    • Geometric boundaries

    • Human features (language, religion, ethnicity)


Aozou strip a geometric boundary

Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary

Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.


Division of cyprus

Division of Cyprus

Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green and Turkish portions since 1974.


Why do boundaries between states cause problems2

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Boundaries inside states

    • Unitary states-puts most power in the hands of the central gov’t.

      • Example: France

    • Federal states-divides power b/t a central gov’t and units of local gov’t.

      • Example: Poland

      • Globally, there is a trend toward federations


Why do boundaries between states cause problems3

Why Do Boundaries Between States Cause Problems?

  • Electoral geography

    • Boundaries within the United States are used to create legislative districts

    • Gerrymandering-process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefitting the party in power.

      • Three types: wasted, excess, and stacked vote

      • Illegal (1985 U.S. Supreme Court decision)


Gerrymandering florida and georgia

Gerrymandering: Florida and Georgia

Fig. 8-11: State legislature boundaries were drawn to maximize the number of legislators for Republicans in Florida and Democrats in Georgia.


Gerrymandering

Gerrymandering


Key issue 3 why do states cooperate with each other

Key issue #3why do states cooperate with each other?


Why do states cooperate with each other

Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other?

  • Political and military cooperation

    • The United Nations (est. 1945)

    • Regional military alliances

      • Balance of power

      • Post–World War II: NATO or the Warsaw Pact

    • Other regional organizations

      • OSEC (est. 1965)

      • OAS (est. 1962)

      • OAU (est. 1963)

      • The Commonwealth of Nations

  • Economic cooperation

  • European Union

  • COMECON


The european union and nato

The European Union and NATO

Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.


Economic and military alliances in cold war europe

Economic and Military Alliances in Cold War Europe

Figure 8-21


European boundary changes

European Boundary Changes

Fig. 8-13: Twentieth-century boundary changes in Europe, 1914 to 2003. Germany’s boundaries changed after each world war and the collapse of the Soviet Union.


Key issue 4 why has terrorism increased

Key issue #4why has terrorism increased?


Why has terrorism increased

Why Has Terrorism Increased?

  • Terrorism

    • Systematic use of violence to intimidate a population or to coerce a government

      • From the Latin word meaning “to frighten”

      • Use of bombing, kidnapping, hijacking, and murder to instill fear and anxiety in a population


Why has terrorism increased1

Why Has Terrorism Increased?

  • Terrorism by individuals and organizations

    • American terrorists

    • September 11, 2001, attacks

    • Al-Qaeda

      • Jihad


World trade center

World Trade Center

Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center June 30, 2000, before the attack.


World trade center site september 15 2001

World Trade Center Site September 15, 2001

Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center September 15, 2001, after the attack.


Aftermath of world trade center attack

Aftermath of World Trade Center Attack


Why has terrorism increased2

Why Has Terrorism Increased?

  • State support for terrorism

    • Three increasing levels of involvement

      • Providing sanctuary

      • Supplying weapons, money, and intelligence to terrorists

      • Using terrorists to plan attacks


Why has terrorism increased3

Why Has Terrorism Increased?

  • State support for terrorism

    • Examples

      • Libya

      • Iraq

      • Afghanistan

      • Iran

      • Pakistan


Ethnic groups in southwest asia

Ethnic Groups in Southwest Asia


Major tribes in iraq

Major Tribes in Iraq


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