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Mr. Millhouse AP World History Hebron High School. Latin America in the 19 th Century. Focus Question. What events facilitated independence movements in Latin America in the early 19 th century?. Latin American Independence. Creoles 3.5 million creoles in Latin America by 1800

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Mr millhouse ap world history hebron high school

Mr. Millhouse

AP World History

Hebron High School

Latin America in the 19th Century


Focus question
Focus Question

What events facilitated independence movements in Latin America in the early 19th century?


Latin american independence
Latin American Independence

  • Creoles

    • 3.5 million creoles in Latin America by 1800

      • Only 30,000 peninsulares

    • Resent tight government and economic regulations

    • Want to replace peninsulares but retain their privileged position

  • American Revolution

  • Napoleon’s Invasion of Spain & Portugal


Latin american independence1
Latin American Independence

  • 1810 – Miguel de Hidalgo begins uprising in Mexico

    • Independence gained by Augustine de Iturbide in 1821

  • 1819 – Simon Bolivar (right) gains independence for Columbia

    • Liberates South America with help from Jose de San Martin

    • Attempt for a unified northern South America fails in 1830

  • 1821 – Brazil gains independence


Problems after independence
Problems After Independence

  • Caudillos

    • Juan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina)

      • “Machiavelli of the pampas”

      • Kills over 22,000 people

  • Latin America had little experience with self-government

  • Creoles dominate politics

    • Only 5% of male population participated in politics

  • Role of the Catholic Church

  • Poor treatment of natives


Mexico 1821 1857
Mexico (1821-1857)

  • 1821-1850’s marked by political instability

    • Went from monarchy to republic to caudillo rule

      • Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana (left) dominates politics prior to 1850

    • Church remains influential

      • Owns almost 50% of all productive land in Mexico

  • Nationalism grows after Mexican-American War


Benito juarez 1861 1872
Benito Juarez (1861-1872)

  • Liberal mestizo

    • First Mexican ruler without a military background

  • Institutes La Reforma

    • Focus on land redistribution to improve the condition of natives

      • Confiscates church lands

      • Speculators and large landowners buy land instead of natives

      • Most of Mexico’s peasants were landless by 1900

  • Creates a backlash from Mexican conservatives


Porfirio diaz 1876 1910
Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910)

  • Industrialized Mexico

    • Built railroads

    • Improved banking system

    • Focused on oil & mining

    • Depended on foreign investment

  • Increasingly autocratic

  • Oppressed political opposition


Economic problems
Economic Problems

  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)

  • Economic Imperialism?

    • Britain replaced Spain as the dominant economic force in Latin America

    • Economy depended heavily on exports

    • Britain dominated until 1860

  • Modernization theory vs. Dependency theory



U s intervention in latin america
U.S. Intervention in Latin America

  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

  • Spanish-American War

    • U.S. gains Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam

    • “Independence” for Cuba

  • Roosevelt Corollary

  • Panama Canal

Mexican Cession as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)






Argentina
Argentina

  • After independence dominated by caudillos

  • Politically stabilized after 1862

  • Economic growth based on exports

    • Primary export is beef

    • Dependent on foreign capital

  • Large numbers of immigrants from Europe

    • 3.5 million from Italy, Germany, Russia, etc.

    • Golondrinas


Latin american society
Latin American Society

  • Few changes for women in Latin America

    • Remained under the control of their fathers and husbands

    • Lower class had more economic freedoms

    • Gained more access to education

  • Racial castes were formally abolished

    • Racial and ethnic tensions continued


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