Innovation Systems and Inequality:
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 17

Innovation Systems and Inequality: Indian Experience K J Joseph PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Innovation Systems and Inequality: Indian Experience K J Joseph Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram Lakhwinder Singh Punjabi University, Patiala Vinoj Abraham Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram. Background. Globalisation and Inequality

Download Presentation

Innovation Systems and Inequality: Indian Experience K J Joseph

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Innovation systems and inequality indian experience k j joseph

Innovation Systems and Inequality:

Indian Experience

K J Joseph

Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

Lakhwinder Singh

Punjabi University, Patiala

Vinoj Abraham

Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram


Background

Background

Globalisation and Inequality

Origin and Rise of Inequality

Structuralist-Evolutionary Approach

Development Strategy and Inequality


Co evolution of nis and inequality in india

Co-evolution of NIS and Inequality in India

  • Phase I-Growth With Equity-Reducing injustice

  • Import Substitution and Public Sector

  • Technology-FDI-IPR Regime and Labour Related Policies

  • Asset Redistribution and Regulation of Monopoly Capital Policies

  • Fiscal, Monetary, Pricing and Freight Rate Policies

  • Food Procurement and Public Distribution System

  • Finance Commission and Redistribution of Revenue


Co evolution of nis and inequality in india1

Co-evolution of NIS and Inequality in India

  • Phase II: Market Oriented Growth for Equity

  • Dismantling Controls and Policies

  • Widespread distress in the Rural Economy

  • Return back of Equitable Considerations

  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Act


Trends and patterns of interpersonal inequality in consumption

Trends and Patterns of Interpersonal Inequality in Consumption


Innovation systems and inequality indian experience k j joseph

Year

Rural

Average Assets Gini Coefficient

Urban

Average AssetsGini Coefficient

1961-62

5287

0.6440

-

-

1971-72

11343

0.6564

-

-

1981-82

36089

0.6364

40566

0.7037

1991-92

107007

0.6207

144330

0.6805

2002-03

265606

0.6289

417158

0.6643

Inequality of Wealth Across Households in India: 1961-62 to 2002-03.

(Figures are in Rs.)

Source: Subramanian and Jayaraj (2006).


Inter regional disparities

Inter-Regional Disparities


Inter regional disparities1

Inter-Regional Disparities

  • History does matter-Colonial System of Exploitation and Regional Structure

  • Three Phases

  • First Phase: Decline in Inter-regional disparities till Mid-Sixties

  • Second Phase: Rise in Inter-regional disparities-Green Revolution Period

  • Third Phase- Liberalisation Period-Rising Inequality-Service Sector driven growth and disparities


Social disparity

Social Disparity

  • Class Vs Social Categories Provided by the Constitution

  • SCs, STs and OBCs

  • Education, Capability Building and Opportunities

  • The rate of educational dropouts is much higher for SCs, STs and OBCs.

  • The rates of return on education for SCs/STs is also very low


Gender discrimination

Gender Discrimination

  • Adverse Sex Ratio- 933

  • Discriminatory practices such female infanticide, female foeticide and practice of dowry

  • Female literacy has improved but still gender gap is 0.7

  • Gender gap in wages is also very high


Access to health

Access to Health

  • Continuous improvements in Health Indicators, but gini coefficient shows stagnation in the post-liberalisation period

  • Piling up of food stocks and persisting malnutrition

  • 40 per cent children suffering from severe malnutrition

  • 46 per cent children remained unvaccinated

  • More than half the births take place without the benefit of a skilled attendent


Economic development and structural heterogeneity

Economic Development and Structural Heterogeneity

  • Structural Transformation from agriculture to service sector

  • Dependence of workforce for livelihood primarily remained on agriculture sector

  • Employment opportunities in the informal sector

  • Informal employment in the formal sector

  • Decline in employment elasticity.


Inter sectoral productivity differentials and their bearing on inequality

Year

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Secondary + Tertiary

Kuznets’ index of inequality

Secondary + Tertiary/ Primary

1950-51

0.73

1.57

1.88

1.76

39.94

2.41

1960-61

0.68

1.74

1.93

1.85

46.38

2.72

1970-71

0.60

2.00

2.10

2.06

58.09

3.43

1980-81

0.53

1.88

2.32

2.12

66.18

4.00

1990-91

0.44

2.35

2.19

2.26

77.29

5.14

1999-00

0.37

2.23

2.08

2.14

81.20

5.78

Inter-sectoral Productivity Differentials and their bearing on Inequality

Source: Sivasubramonian (2000).


Regional disparities in competence building institutions and production

Regional Disparities in Competence Building Institutions and Production

  • 1300 Science and Technology Institutions have been established

  • 1400 R&D Units are functioning

  • These are located in eight states-Viz. AP, Karnataka, Kerala, TM, Maharashtra, Delhi, UP and WB

  • Public sector R&D is still more than 78 per cent

  • Concentration of both public and private sector R&D expenditure in the Engineering and Technology.


Conclusions and way ahead

Conclusions and Way Ahead

  • Innovation System Remained Subservient to the National Priorities and Goals

  • Production structure shown dynamism and inherently generated inequities

  • Science and technology accentuated inequities

  • Policy Instruments ensured to some extent the control over the inequitable regime but upper sections of society turned these instruments either in their favour or subverting them into non-functional

  • Social movements and inclusive growth: Return of employment guarantee programme-Democratic Polity and Inclusive growth


  • Login