How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Portfolios?
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How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Portfolios?. EDUC 602 Session 7. Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties . Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc. Purpose of Portfolios.

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EDUC 602 Session 7

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Educ 602 session 7

How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Portfolios?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


Purpose of portfolios

Purpose of Portfolios

  • Portfolios can be used for a variety of purposes

  • Students learn to be reflective and to discern:

    • Their own growth over time

    • Their strengths

    • Areas on which they need to work

  • Teachers can assess growth

  • Parents can learn about the development of their children’s writing abilities

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Steps to using portfolios

Steps to Using Portfolios

  • Establish Goals

  • Decide on Indicator Tasks

  • Establish Standards

  • Manage Portfolios

  • Evaluate Portfolios

Benedictine University


Educ 602 session 7

How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Commercial Writing Tests?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


Commercial tests of writing

Commercial Tests of Writing

  • Test of Written Language-3 (TOWL-3)

  • Achievement Tests with Writing Subtests:

    • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test

    • The Diagnostic Achievement Battery

    • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised (PIAT-R)

Benedictine University


Educ 602 session 7

How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Rubrics?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


The role of rubrics

The Role of Rubrics

  • Goal: Improve instruction

  • Effective rubrics are:

    • Concise

    • Include criteria that encompasses a teachable skill

    • Clear

  • Teacher-created and Student-created rubrics

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Holistic vs analytic

Holistic vs. Analytic

  • Holistic Scoring

    • Scoring by reacting to the piece of writing as a whole

    • Compare to three anchor papers (good, fair, poor) and determine which is most similar

  • Analytic Scoring

    • Scoring by considering major features of the piece

      • Important to focus on a few essential elements that have previously been emphasized (e.g., 6+1 Traits)

  • To obtain the most valid results, multiple samples of a student’s writing should be assessed

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Guidelines for descriptive feedback

Guidelines for DescriptiveFeedback

  • Be specific

  • Be clear and considerate

  • Limit your comments

  • Tie your feedback to previous instruction

  • Keep the developmental perspective in mind

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Analyzing writing using rubrics activity

Analyzing Writing Using Rubrics Activity

One-to-One Activity:

  • Use the 6+1 Traits rubric you printed during Session 6 to score your case study student’s writing piece

  • With a partner, use the rubric to discuss:

    • What is the student’s strongest writing trait?

    • What is the student’s greatest area of need?

    • What next steps would you recommend for this student?(e.g., additional assessment, instruction in specific areas)

Benedictine University


Educ 602 session 7

How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Journals?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


Journals

Journals

  • Provide insight into students’ thinking and writing abilities

  • Journal topics: the possibilities are endless!

    • Description of topics they are considering exploring

    • Explanation of struggles they are having with their writing

    • Achievements they have made in writing

Benedictine University


Educ 602 session 7

How Can Writing Be Assessed Using Observations and Conferences?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


Observations conferences

Observations & Conferences

  • Observations

    • Observe students during the process of writing

      • How do they choose a topic?

      • What kind of prewriting do they do?

      • What techniques do they use to revise and edit?

    • Make notes regarding both needs and strengths (recommendations and commendations)

  • Writing conferences

    • Stop to discuss the students’ writing while they are engaging in the writing process

Benedictine University


Educ 602 session 7

How Can Spelling Be Analyzed?

EDUC 602

Session 7

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 5 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.


Spelling

Spelling

  • 3 principles of spelling

    • Alphabetic – letters represent sounds

    • Pattern – spelling is determined by a pattern (e.g. ‘e’ at the end of a word indicates a long vowel)

    • Meaning – words that mean the same often are spelled the same (compete/competition)

  • For reading to progress, children need to learn to segment words into phonemes (distinct sound units)

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Stages of spelling activity

Stages of Spelling Activity

Read Figure 5.7 on page 148 of the Gunning text:

  • Pre-phonemic

  • Alphabetic

  • Word Pattern

  • Syllabic

  • Morphemic

Spelling Stages

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Spelling assessment

Spelling Assessment

  • The Elementary Spelling Inventory (page 150 - Gunning)

    • Make sure to analyze misspellings, not just correctly spelled words which can be memorized

  • The Spelling Placement Assessment (page 152 - Gunning)

    • Analyze what stage they are in

    • Also note what kinds of words students struggle with (predictable vs. non-predictable)

  • Assess student writing

  • Student Spelling Interview (page 153 - Gunning)

    • Assess student’s ability to learn new words to spell (study habits)

  • Commercial Spelling Tests (page 154 - Gunning)

  • Developmental Spelling Test Items & Illustrative Spelling at Each Stage (page 262 – Barr, et al.)

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