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Vietnam War. Honors Foreign Policy. Timeline. Korea vs. Vietnam. Guerilla Warfare. Aim to capture “hearts and minds” of ordinary citizens and to undermine their confidence in the regime

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vietnam war

Vietnam War

Honors Foreign Policy

guerilla warfare
Guerilla Warfare
  • Aim to capture “hearts and minds” of ordinary citizens and to undermine their confidence in the regime
  • Long term strategy – Guerillas do not have to inflict complete defeat upon enemy or compel them to surrender
  • Guerillas need support of people for food, shelter, and information
french colonization
French Colonization
  • French colonized Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia at the end of the 1800s until 1954, with brief period of Japanese rule during WWII
  • Japanese ruled Vietnam during WWII and exploited its natural resources
dien bien phu
Dien Bien Phu
  • March 13th – May 7th, 1954
  • Battle between French Union troops and North Vietnamese troops in northwestern Vietnam
  • French forces surrounded and forced to surrender
geneva accords 1954
Geneva Accords 1954
  • Granted independence to Indochina
  • Divided Vietnam at 17th parallel
  • Called for internationally supervised free elections to be held in July 1956
  • Established International Control Commission composed of India, Canada, and Poland
geneva accords 19541
Geneva Accords 1954
  • 450,000 Catholic Vietnamese moved to South Vietnam; 50,000 communist Vietnamese moved to North Vietnam
  • Both sides violated the agreement; North Vietnam supported the Vietcong in the South; South Vietnam and the U.S. sent forces to sabotage installations in the north
strategic hamlet
Strategic Hamlet
  • The Strategic Hamlet program was an attempt to isolate rural peasants from contact and infiltration by the Vietminh by creating fortified villages from 1962 - 1964
  • Several thousand fortified villages were constructed and millions of peasants relocated by the program failed due to corruption and peasant resentment
diem s buddhist crisis
Diem’s Buddhist Crisis
  • Buddhists not allowed to fly religious flags at religious festival
  • Buddhists staged protests in May in the city of Hue. Diem’s soldiers shot and killed 9 protestors leading to more protests and retributions
  • Buddhists called for freedom to fly religious flags, end to arbitrary arrests, and religious equality with Catholics
gulf of tonkin incident
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  • August 2nd, 1964 – The USS Maddox engaged by 3 North Vietnamese Torpedo boats
  • August 4th, 1964 – The USS Maddox allegedly engaged by North Vietnamese Torpedo boats
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Joint resolution passed by Congress on August 7th, 1964
    • Wayne Morse D – Oregon
    • Ernest Gruening D - Alaska
u s commits troops
U.S. Commits Troops
  • March 1965, L.B.J. sends marines to Vietnam to protect U.S. air bases. Marines were supposed to perform defensive duties.
  • By December 1965, nearly 200,000 U.S. troops were in Vietnam performing offensive operations. Their task was to seek and destroy the Vietcong.
vietnamese strategy
Vietnamese Strategy
  • Continue to send supplies to Vietcong insurgents in South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Expand Ho Chi Minh Trail and protect key points with antiaircraft weapons
  • Begin to send large North Vietnamese regular units to the south to help Vietcong
  • Continue hit and run tactics, avoid conventional battles
u s strategy
U.S. Strategy
  • Bomb military targets in North Vietnam such as harbor facilities, railroads, and key points on the Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Use overwhelming U.S. firepower to seek and destroy enemy
  • Wear down the morale and war fighting capability of North Vietnam until they asked for peace
operation rolling thunder1
Operation Rolling Thunder
  • Needs of North Vietnamese forces minimal. All forces in South Vietnam needed only 15 tons of supplies a day to carry on the war
  • China and Soviet Union supplied N. Vietnam with 6000 tons of aid a day
  • N. Vietnam was only a staging point, it had few factories
  • By 1967, N. Vietnam had suffered 300 million in damage but the U.S. had lost 700 aircraft
tet offensive
Tet Offensive
  • Major North Vietnamese offensive on the Lunar New Year, January 1968
  • North Vietnamese forces broke a truce and simultaneously attacked U.S. Forces across Vietnam
  • NVA forces attacked U.S. embassy in Saigon and briefly took over strategic points in Saigon
battle of hue
Battle of Hue
  • NVA forces took over the ancient capital of Vietnam, Hue, during the Tet Offensive
  • Hue was one of the few urban battles during the Vietnam War
  • Casualties – 150 U.S. Marines, over 5000 NVA
nixon doctrine
Nixon Doctrine
  • LBJ did not run for reelection, Richard Nixon was elected as President
  • Nixon promised he would end the war and bring peace with honor
  • Promoted the idea of Vietnamization, a slow withdrawal of U.S. forces in conjunction with training and improving the South Vietnam military
nixon doctrine1
Nixon Doctrine
  • Nixon focused on improving relations with the Soviet Union and China
  • He hoped the Soviet Union and China would reduce aid to the North Vietnamese
  • Nixon was the first U.S. President to travel to communist China and meet with Chinese officials
nixon policy
Nixon Policy
  • Nixon gradually reduced U.S. troops in Vietnam
  • Approved the secret bombing of Vietnamese positions in Cambodia in 1969, Codenamed Operation menu
  • Approved Operation Linebacker, a continuous bombing campaign of North Vietnam from May to October of 1972
  • Cambodia was granted independence by France in November 1953
  • Government was constitutional monarchy under Prince Norodom
  • Norodom adopted policy of neutrality during the Vietnam War
  • North Vietnamese established bases in Cambodia with knowledge of Norodom
  • U.S. Forces secretly bombed and conducted special forces operations in Cambodia against Vietcong
  • In 1970, Prince Norodom was ousted by Prime Minister Lon Nol
  • Khmer Rouge, Cambodian communists with support of North Vietnamese began civil war against Lon Nol’s government forces
  • U.S. bombed Khmer Rouge bases and briefly invaded country
paris peace accords
Paris Peace Accords
  • 27 January 1973 – ceasefire
  • After ceasefire was in effect U.S. troops and other foreign troops would withdraw
  • U.S. prisoners of war would be released
  • Reunification of Vietnam to be carried out by step by step through peaceful means