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TSDM-12 Congress Source: NWC Faculty edited by Dr. Coty Keller. Leader Boss Staff Officer. Congress is important in all Military Decision-making. U.S. Elements. Global Elements. Policy Decision/Action. Law Society Culture. Sovereignty Int’l Law / Norms Religion Ideology Culture.

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TSDM-12 Congress Source: NWC Faculty edited by Dr. Coty Keller

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Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

TSDM-12

Congress

Source: NWC Faculty edited by Dr. Coty Keller

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

Leader

Boss

Staff Officer

Congress is important in all Military Decision-making

U.S. Elements

Global Elements

Policy

Decision/Action

Law

Society

Culture

Sovereignty

Int’l Law / Norms

Religion Ideology

Culture

Authority/

Responsibility

Mission

Resources

Congress

Executive/

Interagency

States

Nations

DoD

Org.

Behavior

Culture

Filters

Joint

Staff

COCOMs

Non-State

Actors

Process

Op. Factors

Structure

Knowledge

Individual

Institutional

Services

IGOs

Media

State / Local

NGOs

Media

Staff Environment

Public

Others

Others

Complex

Interactions

NWC/TSDM Dr. Coty Keller


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

  • JMP Elements:

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

Congress and the Constitution

Article I: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States…


Congress shall

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

Congress Shall….

  • Represent

  • Legislating, Lawmaking

  • Tax & Spend

  • Declare War

  • Raise & Support Armies

  • Provide & Maintain a Navy

  • Oversight and Investigations

  • Propose Amendments to the U.S. Constitution

  • Advise and Consent (Senate)

  • Impeach and Remove Federal Officials

  • Make Laws as Necessary & Proper…

NWC/TSDM


House senate makeup

House

435 members

Based on population

2-year terms

25 years old, 7 year citizen

Salary: $165,200+

Formal

More Partisan

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

House-Senate Makeup

  • Senate

  • 100 members

  • 2 per state

  • 6-year terms

  • 30 years old, 9 year citizen

  • Salary: $165,200+

  • Casual, “The Club”

  • Less Partisan

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

Congressional Leaders

House Speaker

Senate Majority Leader

Harry Reid (D-NV)

John Boehner (R-OH)

Majority Leader

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D-HI)

Eric Cantor (R-VA)

Minority Leader

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell (R-KY)

Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

Knowledge

Individual

Institutional

CONGRESSIONAL STAFF

Personal Staff

Professional Staff

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

How a Bill Becomes a Law

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

  • Products

Bill Is Introduced in The Senate

Bill Is Introduced in The House

Speaker

Parliamentarian

Referred to Senate Committee

Referred to House Committee

Process

Op. Factors

Structure

Referred to

Subcommittee

Referred to Subcommittee

Changes Voted on by Full Committee

Changes Voted on by Full Committee

Rules Cmte

Full Senate Debate and Vote

Full House Debate and Vote

Conference Committee

Rules Cmte

Senate Approves

House Approves

If the President signs the bill, it becomes public law


America s love hate relationship with congress

America’s Love Hate Relationship with Congress

‘10 - 85%

‘10 - 84%

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

CONGRESS AND THE MILITARY

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

The Constitution Gives Congress the Authority to Regulate the Military

  • Article I, Section 7 – All Bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

  • Article I, Section 8 – The Congress shall have the power to...

    • provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.

    • Declare War

    • To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money shall be for a longer Term than two Years

    • To provide and maintain a Navy

    • To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces

    • Provide for calling forth the Militia to execute laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions

    • To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia

    • To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States or in any Department or Office thereof.

NWC/TSDM


Clash of organizational cultures

Clash of Organizational Cultures

“Congress does not understand the military well and the converse is also true.”

Admiral William Crowe

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0CprVYsG0k&feature=related

NWC/TSDM


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

Federal Budget Process & Products

(No Military Programs are funded without Authorization & Appropriation Bills)

  • Budget Committees

    • House Budget Committee

    • Senate Budget Committee

    • Concurrent Budget Resolution

  • Authorization Committees

    • Senate Armed Services Committee

    • House Armed Services Committee

    • Defense Authorization Act

  • Appropriations Committees

    • Senate Appropriations Committee

    • House Appropriations Committee

    • Defense Appropriations Bill

  • Conference Committees

    • Resolve Differences

Establish limits on broad spending categories for the Authorization / Appropriation Committees and monitors them to ensure caps are not exceeded

Approve programs –allow them to exist– and detail policy and funding objectives. Does not commit funds but may set funding expectation

Provide funds necessary for authorized defense spending programs

Reconciles House & Senate bills


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

  • Authority

  • Mission

  • Structure

  • Process

NWC/TSDM

Source: CSBA 2010


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

Knowledge

Individual

Institutional

Legislative Liaison Hierarchy

  • Asst Sec of Defense for Legislative Affairs (ASD-LA)

  • Responsible directly to the SecDef

  • Manages, controls, directs + monitors communications and activities Congress and elements of DoD, including OSD, JCS, Armed Services + Defense Agencies

Handle all Congressional inquiries and requests – requires larger staff (@80-100 per Service)

  • Service HQ LL Staff

  • Authorizing Cmtes + all other inquiries

  • Appropriations Cmte-specific staffers

Unified Command

CAG / special staff / personal staff

Often only small staff and one part of larger portfolio, most active around hearing time for posture statements, etc. (spring)

Specified Command

NWC/TSDM

CAG / personal staff


Tsdm 12 congress source nwc faculty edited by dr coty keller

Knowledge

Individual

Institutional

Chief of Legislative Affairs

Rear Admiral Tom Copeman

The Chief of Legislative Affairs (CLA) is the Secretary of the Navy's principal staff assistant for discharging the legislative functions and responsibilities of the Department of the Navy (DoN), with the exception of liaison with the Appropriations Committees, which is, by law, vested with the Comptroller of the Navy. CLA directs the Office of Legislative Affairs and reports directly to the Secretary and to Chief of Naval Operations.

NWC/TSDM

http://www.navy.mil/navydata/people/ola/ola.html


Take aways

Take Aways

  • Congress directly impacts everything DoD does and procures or hopes to do or procure; How

  • Congress operates distinct from the Executive Branch;

  • Understanding how Congress functions and why it functions that way is essential to effective decision and policy support

NWC/TSDM


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