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Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5. March 14, 2007. Tetrahedral. Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5 º ). But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles. sp 3 Hybridization.

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Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5

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Hybridization of orbitals sections 9 1 and 9 5 l.jpg

Hybridization of OrbitalsSections 9.1 and 9.5

March 14, 2007


Tetrahedral l.jpg

Tetrahedral

  • Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5º).

  • But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles.


Sp 3 hybridization l.jpg

sp3 Hybridization

  • Molecules that have tetrahedral geometry like CH4, NH3, H2O, SO42-, and ClO3- exhibit sp3 hybridization on the central atom.


Methane with hybridized orbitals l.jpg

Methane with Hybridized Orbitals

  • Overlap of the Hydrogen 1s orbitals with the hybridized sp3 orbitals from the central Carbon.


Trigonal planar sp 2 hybridization l.jpg

Trigonal Planar – sp2 Hybridization

  • Molecules with trigonal planar geometry like SO3, C2H4, SeS2, CO32-, exhibit sp2 hybridization on the central atom.


Hybridized and unhybridized orbital view l.jpg

Hybridized and Unhybridized Orbital View


Slide7 l.jpg

Rotate 90 degrees


Bonding and hybridized orbitals l.jpg

Bonding and hybridized orbitals

  • Hybridized orbitals make sigma bonds

  • Unhybridized orbitals make pi bonds

  • http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem7.htm


Linear geometry sp hybridization l.jpg

Linear geometry - sp Hybridization

  • Molecules that have a linear geometry like CO2, N2O, BeH2, HCN, C2H2 all exhibit sp hybrization on the central atom.


Co 2 structure l.jpg

CO2 Structure


Sp hybridization l.jpg

sp Hybridization


Pi bonds and sigma bonds l.jpg

Pi bonds and Sigma Bonds

  • CO2 exhibits sp hybridization on the C and sp2 hybridization on the Oxygens.


N 2 hybridization l.jpg

N2 Hybridization

  • Diatomic Nitrogen has a Lewis structure showing a triple bond.


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Hybridized Orbitals When Exceeding the Octet Rule


Pcl 5 dsp 3 hybridized l.jpg

PCl5 dsp3 Hybridized

  • Trigonal bipyramid geometry

  • SeF4, PCl5, BrF3, XeCl2


Octahedral geometry l.jpg

Octahedral Geometry

  • d2sp3 hybridization

  • XeF4, BrCl5, SeI6


Delocalization of electrons 9 5 l.jpg

Delocalization of Electrons (9.5)

  • In molecules that show resonance structures, we have a delocalization of electrons.

  • The available unhybridized p orbitals all overlap and stabilize the structure through the π interactions.

  • NO3-


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