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Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5

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Hybridization of OrbitalsSections 9.1 and 9.5

March 14, 2007

- Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5º).
- But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles.

- Molecules that have tetrahedral geometry like CH4, NH3, H2O, SO42-, and ClO3- exhibit sp3 hybridization on the central atom.

- Overlap of the Hydrogen 1s orbitals with the hybridized sp3 orbitals from the central Carbon.

- Molecules with trigonal planar geometry like SO3, C2H4, SeS2, CO32-, exhibit sp2 hybridization on the central atom.

Rotate 90 degrees

- Hybridized orbitals make sigma bonds
- Unhybridized orbitals make pi bonds
- http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem7.htm

- Molecules that have a linear geometry like CO2, N2O, BeH2, HCN, C2H2 all exhibit sp hybrization on the central atom.

- CO2 exhibits sp hybridization on the C and sp2 hybridization on the Oxygens.

- Diatomic Nitrogen has a Lewis structure showing a triple bond.

- Trigonal bipyramid geometry
- SeF4, PCl5, BrF3, XeCl2

- d2sp3 hybridization
- XeF4, BrCl5, SeI6

- In molecules that show resonance structures, we have a delocalization of electrons.
- The available unhybridized p orbitals all overlap and stabilize the structure through the π interactions.
- NO3-