Hybridization of orbitals sections 9 1 and 9 5 l.jpg
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 17

Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1137 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5. March 14, 2007. Tetrahedral. Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5 º ). But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles. sp 3 Hybridization.

Download Presentation

Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Hybridization of OrbitalsSections 9.1 and 9.5

March 14, 2007


Tetrahedral

  • Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5º).

  • But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles.


sp3 Hybridization

  • Molecules that have tetrahedral geometry like CH4, NH3, H2O, SO42-, and ClO3- exhibit sp3 hybridization on the central atom.


Methane with Hybridized Orbitals

  • Overlap of the Hydrogen 1s orbitals with the hybridized sp3 orbitals from the central Carbon.


Trigonal Planar – sp2 Hybridization

  • Molecules with trigonal planar geometry like SO3, C2H4, SeS2, CO32-, exhibit sp2 hybridization on the central atom.


Hybridized and Unhybridized Orbital View


Rotate 90 degrees


Bonding and hybridized orbitals

  • Hybridized orbitals make sigma bonds

  • Unhybridized orbitals make pi bonds

  • http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem7.htm


Linear geometry - sp Hybridization

  • Molecules that have a linear geometry like CO2, N2O, BeH2, HCN, C2H2 all exhibit sp hybrization on the central atom.


CO2 Structure


sp Hybridization


Pi bonds and Sigma Bonds

  • CO2 exhibits sp hybridization on the C and sp2 hybridization on the Oxygens.


N2 Hybridization

  • Diatomic Nitrogen has a Lewis structure showing a triple bond.


Hybridized Orbitals When Exceeding the Octet Rule


PCl5 dsp3 Hybridized

  • Trigonal bipyramid geometry

  • SeF4, PCl5, BrF3, XeCl2


Octahedral Geometry

  • d2sp3 hybridization

  • XeF4, BrCl5, SeI6


Delocalization of Electrons (9.5)

  • In molecules that show resonance structures, we have a delocalization of electrons.

  • The available unhybridized p orbitals all overlap and stabilize the structure through the π interactions.

  • NO3-


  • Login