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Hybridization of Orbitals Sections 9.1 and 9.5. March 14, 2007. Tetrahedral. Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5 º ). But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles. sp 3 Hybridization.

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Hybridization of orbitals sections 9 1 and 9 5 l.jpg

Hybridization of OrbitalsSections 9.1 and 9.5

March 14, 2007


Tetrahedral l.jpg
Tetrahedral

  • Experimentally we know the bond angles (109.5º).

  • But our current understanding of orbitals doesn’t allow us to achieve these bond angles.


Sp 3 hybridization l.jpg
sp3 Hybridization

  • Molecules that have tetrahedral geometry like CH4, NH3, H2O, SO42-, and ClO3- exhibit sp3 hybridization on the central atom.


Methane with hybridized orbitals l.jpg
Methane with Hybridized Orbitals

  • Overlap of the Hydrogen 1s orbitals with the hybridized sp3 orbitals from the central Carbon.


Trigonal planar sp 2 hybridization l.jpg
Trigonal Planar – sp2 Hybridization

  • Molecules with trigonal planar geometry like SO3, C2H4, SeS2, CO32-, exhibit sp2 hybridization on the central atom.




Bonding and hybridized orbitals l.jpg
Bonding and hybridized orbitals

  • Hybridized orbitals make sigma bonds

  • Unhybridized orbitals make pi bonds

  • http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/chem7.htm


Linear geometry sp hybridization l.jpg
Linear geometry - sp Hybridization

  • Molecules that have a linear geometry like CO2, N2O, BeH2, HCN, C2H2 all exhibit sp hybrization on the central atom.


Co 2 structure l.jpg
CO2 Structure



Pi bonds and sigma bonds l.jpg
Pi bonds and Sigma Bonds

  • CO2 exhibits sp hybridization on the C and sp2 hybridization on the Oxygens.


N 2 hybridization l.jpg
N2 Hybridization

  • Diatomic Nitrogen has a Lewis structure showing a triple bond.



Pcl 5 dsp 3 hybridized l.jpg
PCl5 dsp3 Hybridized

  • Trigonal bipyramid geometry

  • SeF4, PCl5, BrF3, XeCl2


Octahedral geometry l.jpg
Octahedral Geometry

  • d2sp3 hybridization

  • XeF4, BrCl5, SeI6


Delocalization of electrons 9 5 l.jpg
Delocalization of Electrons (9.5)

  • In molecules that show resonance structures, we have a delocalization of electrons.

  • The available unhybridized p orbitals all overlap and stabilize the structure through the π interactions.

  • NO3-


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