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Data Mining – Best Practices Part #2

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Data Mining – Best PracticesPart #2

Richard Derrig, PhD,

Opal Consulting LLC

CAS Spring Meeting

June 16-18, 2008

- Data Mining, also known as Knowledge-Discovery in Databases (KDD), is the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns. In order to achieve this, data mining uses computational techniques from statistics, machine learning and pattern recognition.
- www.wikipedia.org

AGENDA

Predictive v Explanatory Models

Discussion of Methods

Example: Explanatory Models for Decision to Investigate Claims

The “Importance” of Explanatory and Predictive Variables

An Eight Step Program for Building

a Successful Model

- Both are of the form: Target or Dependent Variable is a Function of Feature or Independent Variables that are related to the Target Variable
- Explanatory Models assume all Variables are Contemporaneous and Known
- Predictive Models assume all Variables are Contemporaneous and Estimable

- Any nonlinear relationship between target and features can be approximated
- A method that works when the form of the nonlinearity is unknown
- The effect of interactions can be easily determined and incorporated into the model
- The method generalizes well on out-of sample data

Supervised learning

Most common situation

Target variable

Frequency

Loss ratio

Fraud/no fraud

Some methods

Regression

Decision Trees

Some neural networks

Unsupervised learning

No Target variable

Group like records together-Clustering

A group of claims with similar characteristics might be more likely to be of similar risk of loss

Ex: Territory assignment,

Some methods

PRIDIT

K-means clustering

Kohonen neural networks

1) TREENET7) Iminer Ensemble

2) Iminer Tree8) MARS

3) SPLUS Tree9) Random Forest

4) CART10) Exhaustive Chaid

5) S-PLUS Neural11) Naïve Bayes (Baseline)

6) Iminer Neural 12) Logistic reg ( (Baseline)

- In decision theory (for example risk management), a decision tree is a graph of decisions and their possible consequences, (including resource costs and risks) used to create a plan to reach a goal. Decision trees are constructed in order to help with making decisions. A decision tree is a special form of tree structure.
- www.wikipedia.org

- For the entire database, total squared deviation of paid losses around the predicted value (i.e., the mean) is 4.95x1013. The SSE declines to 4.66x1013 after the data are partitioned using $5,021 as the cutpoint.
- Any other partition of the provider bill produces a larger SSE than 4.66x1013. For instance, if a cutpoint of $10,000 is selected, the SSE is 4.76*1013.

- Single Trees (CART, CHAID)
- Ensemble Trees, a more recent development (TREENET, RANDOM FOREST)
- A composite or weighted average of many trees (perhaps 100 or more)
- There are many methods to fit the trees and prevent overfitting
- Boosting: Iminer Ensemble and Treenet
- Bagging: Random Forest

=

- Self-Organizing Feature Maps
- T. Kohonen 1982-1990 (Cybernetics)
- Reference vectors of features map to OUTPUT format in topologically faithful way. Example: Map onto 40x40 2-dimensional square.
- Iterative Process Adjusts All Reference Vectors in a “Neighborhood” of the Nearest One. Neighborhood Size Shrinks over Iterations

- Data on 16,000 Medicaid providers analyzed by unsupervised neural net
- Neural network clustered Medicaid providers based on 100+ features
- Investigators validated a small set of known fraudulent providers
- Visualization tool displays clustering, showing known fraud and abuse
- Subset of 100 providers with similar patterns investigated: Hit rate > 70%

Cube size proportional to annual Medicaid revenues

© 1999 Intelligent Technologies Corporation

- MARS fits a piecewise linear regression
- BF1 = max(0, X – 1,401.00)
- BF2 = max(0, 1,401.00 - X )
- BF3 = max(0, X - 70.00)
- Y = 0.336 + .145626E-03 * BF1 - .199072E-03 * BF2 - .145947E-03 * BF3; BF1 is basis function
- BF1, BF2, BF3 are basis functions

- MARS uses statistical optimization to find best basis function(s)
- Basis function similar to dummy variable in regression. Like a combination of a dummy indicator and a linear independent variable

- Naive Bayes assumes feature (predictor) variables) independence conditional on each category
- Logistic Regression assumes target is linear in the logs of the feature (predictor) variables

- Classify all claims
- Identify valid classes
- Pay the claim
- No hassle
- Visa Example

- Identify (possible) fraud
- Investigation needed

- Identify “gray” classes
- Minimize with “learning” algorithms

- Independent Medical Exam (IME) requested
- Special Investigation Unit (SIU) referral
- IME successful
- SIU successful
- DATA: Detailed Auto Injury Closed Claim Database for Massachusetts
- Accident Years (1995-1997)

- Want good performance both on sensitivity and specificity
- Sensitivity and specificity depend on cut points chosen for binary target (yes/no)
- Choose a series of different cut points, and compute sensitivity and specificity for each of them
- Graph results
- Plot sensitivity vs 1-specifity
- Compute an overall measure of “lift”, or area under the curve

- Choose a “cut point” in the model score.
- Claims > cut point, classify “yes”.

- STEP 1:SAMPLE: Systematic benchmark of a random sample of claims.
- STEP 2:FEATURES: Isolate red flags and other sorting characteristics
- STEP 3:FEATURE SELECTION: Separate features into objective and subjective, early, middle and late arriving, acquisition cost levels, and other practical considerations.
- STEP 4:CLUSTER: Apply unsupervised algorithms (Kohonen, PRIDIT, Fuzzy) to cluster claims, examine for needed homogeneity.

- STEP 5:ASSESSMENT: Externally classify claims according to objectives for sorting.
- STEP 6:MODEL: Supervised models relating selected features to objectives (logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks, CART, MARS)
- STEP7:STATIC TESTING: Model output versus expert assessment, model output versus cluster homogeneity (PRIDIT scores) on one or more samples.
- STEP 8:DYNAMIC TESTING: Real time operation of acceptable model, record outcomes, repeat steps 1-7 as needed to fine tune model and parameters. Use PRIDIT to show gain or loss of feature power and changing data patterns, tune investigative proportions to optimize detection and deterrence of fraud and abuse.