D tente and the collapse of communism
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Détente and the Collapse of Communism. Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982). was a key actor in the ouster of Khrushchev emerged as the leader of the U.S.S.R. by the early-1970s. Brezhnev cracked-down on dissidents ( i. e. citizens who opposed the government). Andrey Sakharov.

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Détente and the Collapse of Communism

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D tente and the collapse of communism

Détente and theCollapse of Communism


Leonid brezhnev 1906 1982

Leonid Brezhnev(1906-1982)

  • was a key actor in the ouster of Khrushchev

  • emerged as the leader of the U.S.S.R. by the early-1970s


Brezhnev cracked down on dissidents i e citizens who opposed the government

Brezhnev cracked-down on dissidents (i. e. citizens who opposed the government)

Andrey Sakharov

Alexandr Solzhenitsyn


Arms build up

Arms Build-up

built-up the military

at the expense of

consumer goods

(wanted a navy as

large as the U.S.A.’s in order to avoid being humiliated again like the Cuban Missile Crisis)


Spending on the military caused shortages of consumer goods

Spending on the military caused shortages of consumer goods.


Detente

Detente

The Nixon administrationentered into a dialogue with the Soviet Union aimed at easing the Cold War tension existing between the two countries.


President nixon becomes the first u s president to visit the soviet union while in office

President Nixon becomes the first U. S. president to visit the Soviet Union while in office.

He later visits Communist China (PRC).


The policy of d tente included cultural exchanges

The policy of Détente included: cultural exchanges,


The sharing of technology

the sharing of technology,


And the signing of strategic arms limitations treaties salt

and the signing of strategic arms limitations treaties (SALT).


D tente and the collapse of communism

The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979

and got bogged-down in a Viet Nam style war.


The arms race of the 1970s and early 1980s cripples the soviet economy

The arms race of the 1970s and early-1980s cripples the Soviet economy.


Solidarity

Solidarity

  • independent trade union which appeared in Poland in the early-1980s

  • challenged the state-sanctioned unions

  • contributed to the weakening of the Communist Party in Poland


D tente and the collapse of communism

Lech Walesa


Mikhail gorbachev 1931

Mikhail Gorbachev(1931- )

  • leader of the Soviet Union from the winter of 1985 until the collapse of communism in 1991


Gorbachev recognized that his country was in serious economic trouble

Gorbachev recognized that his country was in serious economic trouble.

He tried to face the problems openly:

1. perestroika - restructuring of the economy

2. glasnost - openness in cultural and political affairs


For the first time soviet leaders admitted publicly that they

For the first time Soviet leaders admitted publicly that they

1. had problems

and

2. sought aid and solutions from both internal and external sources.


Glasnost and perestroika

Glasnost and Perestroika

  • break-up of the Soviet Union

  • collapse of the Soviet Bloc

  • end of the Warsaw Pact


The commonwealth of independent states c i s was established 8th december 1991

The Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.) was established 8th December 1991.


The three republics of lithuania latvia and estonia did not join the c i s

The three republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia did not join the C. I. S.


D tente and the collapse of communism

The Republic of Georgia was not allowed to join until after it had settled a dispute over who would run the country.


Boris yeltsin 1931

Boris Yeltsin(1931- )

  • stopped a coup d’etat aimed at overthrowing Gorbachev (1991)

    -gained great popularity

    -was elected president of Russia


Problems facing russia today and in the future

Problems facing Russia today and in the future:

  • economy in poor shape

  • democratic institutions “shaky”

  • organized crime is on the rise

  • most of it’s new neighbors are unstable and/or belligerent


Vladimir zhirinovsky

Vladimir Zhirinovsky

  • nationalistic leader

  • wants to reunite the lands that formerly made up the Soviet Union

  • claims that Russia only “rented” Alaska to the U. S.


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