Numerical and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Pantograph-Catenary Interaction
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Numerical and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Pantograph-Catenary Interaction. Stefano Bruni, Giuseppe Bucca, Andra Collina, Alan Facchinetti. Introduction. The assessment of the performance of a given pantograph-catenary system is usually based on line measurements

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Numerical and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Pantograph-Catenary Interaction

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Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Numerical and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Pantograph-Catenary Interaction

Stefano Bruni, Giuseppe Bucca, Andra Collina, Alan Facchinetti


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Introduction

  • The assessment of the performance of a given pantograph-catenary system is usually based on line measurements

  • Experimental test runs are extremely time-consuming and expensive

  • The availability of simulation tools for pantograph-catenary dynamic interaction is essential or at least can reduce the number of required line tests for:

  • design of new systems

  • optimisation of existing systems

  • interoperability analyses

  • virtual homologation (PantoTRAIN)


Contents of the presentation

Contents of the presentation

  • Mathematical model and numerical simulation of pantograph-catenary interaction

  • Hybrid simulation of pantograph-catenary interaction

  • Comparison of the simulation tools with line measurements

  • Effect of contact strip deformability

  • Effect of contact dynamics on contact wire wear

  • Concluding remarks


Mathematical model of pantograph catenary interaction

Mathematical model of pantograph-catenary interaction

  • The development of a mathematical model for pantograph-catenary dynamic interaction started at Politecnico di Milano several years ago

  • Cooperation with Italferr and former FS (Italian State Railways), now RFI (Rete Ferroviaria Italiana)

  • Simulation tool mainly intended for the assessment of current collection quality, continuously updated

  • Software was successfully applied:

  • to the design of the new Italian 25 kV a.c. high speed line

  • for the upgrading of the existing Italian 3 kV d.c. line

  • for the design of several applications world-wide, in support of the main overhead line suppliers.


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Mathematical model: the catenary model

Traditional wire droppers

Elastic ring dropper

  • Finite element schematisation of the contact wire and of the messenger wire

  • Droppers included as non linear element(non-linear characteristic obtained fromlaboratory tests)


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Mathematical model: the pantograph model

  • Pantograph represented as a non-linear lumped parameter system (identification from experimental FRF)

  • Bending deformability of the collectors introduced by modal superposition approach (impact tests on the single collector)


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Mathematical model: the interaction model

Contact law

(penalty method)

Catenary motion

Fc

Collector motion

Fc


Hybrid hil simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Hybrid (HIL) simulation of pantograph-catenary interaction

8

Real-time catenary model


Hybrid simulation the hil test rig

Hybrid simulation: the HIL test-rig

9

Lateral actuation (stagger) Electromechanicalup to ±400mm @ 360 km/h

Vertical actuation 2 independent hydraulic actuatorsup to 25 Hz

Load cells


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Hybrid simulation: the catenary model

traction

compression

  • 3-5 spans (periodic structure)

  • CW and MW represented through modal superposition approach (tensioned beams)

  • Effect of droppers’ slackening

  • “Shift forward” procedure


Comparison of numerical simulation with line measurements

Comparison of numerical simulation with line measurements

ATR95 pantograph - C270 catenary (25 kV a.c.)

V = 300 km/h

Time histor of the contact force

(approximately 3 spans)

1/3 octave band frequency spectra of the contact force

CW irregularity was considered in the numerical simulation


Comparison of hybrid simulation with line measurements

Comparison of hybrid simulation with line measurements

ATR95 pantograph - C270 catenary (25 kV a.c.)

V = 300 km/h

Time history of the contact force

(approximately 3 spans)

1/3 octave band frequency spectra of the contact force


Comparison with line measurements

Comparison with line measurements

ATR95 pantograph - C270 catenary (25 kV a.c.)

V = 300 km/h


Effect of contact strip deformability numerical simulation

Effect of contact strip deformability (numerical simulation)


Effect of contact strip deformability numerical simulation1

Effect of contact strip deformability (numerical simulation)

V=270 km/h

without deformability

V=330 km/h

V=270 km/h

with deformability

V=330 km/h

Spectra of the vertical accelerations of the front collector

Contact losses percentage


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Effect of contact dynamics on contact wire wear (numerical simulation)

Procedure for the estimation of wear evolution

V

A

Fc

Numerical simulation of the pantograph-catenary interaction

Evolution of CW irregularity (single passage)

Wear modelA=f(Fc,i,V)

i

N pass.

Initial irregularity


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

The wear model

Wear modelA=f(Fc,i,V)

Heuristic model of contact wire wear, tuned on the basis of experimental data

Electrical contribution

Mechanical contribution

A = worn area, Fc = contact force, i = current intensity, V = sliding speed,H = hardness of CW material, F0, i0, V0 = reference value, R(Fc) = electrical contact resistanceα, β, k1 and k2 identified from experimental data


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Test rig for the study of wear behaviour of contact strip and contact wire

The test-rig enables the testing of full scale collectors at speeds up to 200 km/h, imposing electrical current intensity up to 1200 A dc, 500 A ac 162/3 Hz and 350 A ac 50 Hz.


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Test rig for the study of wear behaviour of contact strip and contact wire


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Test rig for the study of wear behaviour of contact strip and contact wire

Rotating fibre-glass disk (R = 2 m)

Contact wire


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Test rig for the study of wear behaviour of contact strip and contact wire

Collector

Hydraulic actuator


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Test rig for the study of wear behaviour of contact strip and contact wire

Ventilation apparatus


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Results from wear tests: contact resistance

Contactresistance vs contact force


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Results from wear tests: Contact wire Specific Wear Rate

CW SWR vs contact force

CW SWR vs current

Vlm = volume of lost material [mm3]

s = travelled distance [km]

FC= Contact force [N]


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

Results from wear tests: Contact wire Specific Wear Rate

k1, k2, α and β


Numerical and hardware in the loop simulation of pantograph catenary interaction

mid

Evolution of the worn area of the contact wire

Comparison between numerical results for two different values of the mechanical tension of the contact wire, i.e. 17 kN and 20 kN


Concluding remarks

Concluding remarks

  • The numerical simulation and hybrid co-simulation represent useful means to investigate the pantograph-catenary dynamic interaction before line-testing

  • The degree of accuracy that can be obtained with these two techniques is more than satisfactory

  • Mathematical models can also give some insight into some of the phenomena involved in pantograph-catenary interaction, e.g. the effects of collector deformability and wear process concerning contact wire and collector strip

Thank you for your attention


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