What is Islam?. From Origins to the Split in the Umma. Arabia before Muhammad. Many different tribes divided by language and economic inequality Bedouins: nomadic, herded camels, sheep, goats in desert or steppe Also merchants in long-distance trade, farmers and craftspeople
What is Islam?
From Origins to the
Split in the Umma
M. emphasized a single, pan-Arab community united under God
All believers equal under God
Possibility of socio-economic mobility- Appealing to the poor, women, slaves, orphans, travelers
How are laws, rules, social mores created?
Sharia=writing of scholars, jurisprudence, law for spiritual and secular life
Ulama=scholarly class, clerics
Ijma – General consensus of Umma on morality/correctness of action
Ijtihad – The concept that an educated Moslem (in Qur’anic law/history) can interpret moral action individually