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VECTOR DRIVES

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VECTOR DRIVES

EASA June 2005

“REACHING NEW HEIGHTS”

Dave Ruehle and Bill Colton

- Define a Drive
- What is an Inverter Drive
- Why the Vector was Invented
- How Does a Vector Work
- What Types of Vectors Exist
- Typical Applications for Vector Drives

- Control Circuits
- Ancillary devices
- Couplings
- Feedback

- Parts and Pieces
- Prime Mover
- Mechanical Reduction(s)

- Terminology
- Scalar Drive
- VFD
- ASD
- VVVF
- VFI

- Speed Control Device
- Controls STATOR frequency
- Rotor changes speed with load
- Speed Changes dependant on motor slip

- NOT a current controller
- Only a current limiter

- Increase Application Efficiency
- Better Speed Control
- Better Torque and/or Force Control
- More Efficient Use of Power

- Performance Benefits
- Rotor Speed Regulation
- Lower Rotor Inertia Requirements
- Much Wider Speed Ranges
- Torque (or Force) Control
- Zero Speed Full Torque

- Convert AC Input to DC
- Filter the DC Power
- Create a digital output pulse train varying the frequency and voltage to Stator

- Establish the motor/system Model
- Stator Resistance
- Stator Inductance
- Rotor Resistance
- Rotor Inductance
- Air gap Losses
- Machine Losses and Inertia

- This is achieved in several fashions
- Manual – Programming Each Item
- Auto Tuning
- Program Basics
- Run Tests for Additional Items

- Adaptive Tuning
- Continuously Adjusting for Changing Conditions

- Now The System Model is Established

- Hardware
Comparison

- Monitoring the feedback
- Speed
- Current
- Back EMF

- Comparing to Established Model
- Adjust accordingly
- Amount of Deviation
- Motor/System Model

- Open Loop (Encoderless) Vector
- Establishes the Shaft Position from the current (amp) measurement
- Advantages
- Lower Initial Cost
- Reduced Wiring

- Disadvantages
- Not as responsive
- Limited Speed Range
- Difficulty with Impact Loads
- Temperature Changes can be Problematic

- Closed Loop Vector
- Monitors Shaft Position via Feedback
- Encoder
- Resolver

- Advantages
- Excellent Speed Regulation
- Full Torque at Zero Speed
- Systems Capabilities
- Very Responsive
- Higher Safety
- Easier to Tune

- Monitors Shaft Position via Feedback

- Closed Loop Vectors (Cont.)
- Disadvantages
- Additional Initial Cost
- More Wiring
- Motor Length
- Requires Better Wiring Practice

- Disadvantages

- Space Vector
- A method of firing transistor to control a specific element
- Current Feedback
- Voltage Feedback
- Hysteresis

- A method of firing transistor to control a specific element
- Sine Triggered (Coded) Vector
- A method of firing transistors to control the sine wave

- Extruders
- Closed Loop for Clamped Dies
- Open Loop for Continuous Feed

- Lifts
- Closed Loop for Safety
- Has been done with Open Loop and Mechanical Load Brakes – consult manufacturers

- Bridge Drives – Typically Scalar
- Trolley Drives – Typically Scalar
- Conveyors – Typically Scalar
- Centrifugal Loads – Typically Scalar
- Potential Energy Savings with Encoderless

- Spindle Drives – Typically Closed Loop
- Rapid Response Times
- Accurate Speed for Tapping
- Controlled Grind Speed

- Winders
- Typically Closed Loop for Tension Control

- Mooring Winch – Encoderless
- Mixers – Typically Scalar
- Line Shaft Replacements – Closed Loop with “electronic line shaft” capability
- Cut to Length – Closed Loop with Motion Control

- Flying Shear – Closed Loop with Motion Controller
- Stacker Cranes
- Horizontal (X) – Scaler or Closed Loop
- Elevation (Y) – Closed Loop for Safety
- Bins or Forks (Z) – Scaler or Closed Loop

- Crushers
- Oversized Scaler

- Types of Braking
- D.C. Injection
- Shunt Braking – Most Common
- Bus Sharing
- Line Regenerative

- Elevators
- Hoists
- Presses
- Centrifuges
- Unwind Stands
- Windmills
- Pumping Jack Drives
- Application where Heated Resistors are a problem
- Test Stands (dynamometers)