Vector drives
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VECTOR DRIVES. EASA June 2005 “REACHING NEW HEIGHTS” Dave Ruehle and Bill Colton. Outline. Define a Drive What is an Inverter Drive Why the Vector was Invented How Does a Vector Work What Types of Vectors Exist Typical Applications for Vector Drives. What is a Drive. Control Circuits

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VECTOR DRIVES

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Vector drives

VECTOR DRIVES

EASA June 2005

“REACHING NEW HEIGHTS”

Dave Ruehle and Bill Colton


Outline

Outline

  • Define a Drive

  • What is an Inverter Drive

  • Why the Vector was Invented

  • How Does a Vector Work

  • What Types of Vectors Exist

  • Typical Applications for Vector Drives


What is a drive

What is a Drive

  • Control Circuits

  • Ancillary devices

    • Couplings

    • Feedback

  • Parts and Pieces

    • Prime Mover

    • Mechanical Reduction(s)


What is an inverter drive

What is an Inverter Drive

  • Terminology

    • Scalar Drive

    • VFD

    • ASD

    • VVVF

    • VFI


What is an inverter drive1

What is an Inverter Drive

  • Speed Control Device

    • Controls STATOR frequency

    • Rotor changes speed with load

      • Speed Changes dependant on motor slip

  • NOT a current controller

    • Only a current limiter


Why the vector was invented

Why the Vector was Invented

  • Increase Application Efficiency

    • Better Speed Control

    • Better Torque and/or Force Control

    • More Efficient Use of Power


Why the vector was invented1

Why the Vector was Invented

  • Performance Benefits

    • Rotor Speed Regulation

    • Lower Rotor Inertia Requirements

    • Much Wider Speed Ranges

    • Torque (or Force) Control

    • Zero Speed Full Torque


How inverter control is achieved

How Inverter Control Is Achieved

  • Convert AC Input to DC

  • Filter the DC Power

  • Create a digital output pulse train varying the frequency and voltage to Stator


How vector control is achieved

How Vector Control is Achieved

  • Establish the motor/system Model

    • Stator Resistance

    • Stator Inductance

    • Rotor Resistance

    • Rotor Inductance

    • Air gap Losses

    • Machine Losses and Inertia


How vector control is achieved1

How Vector Control is Achieved

  • This is achieved in several fashions

    • Manual – Programming Each Item

    • Auto Tuning

      • Program Basics

      • Run Tests for Additional Items

    • Adaptive Tuning

      • Continuously Adjusting for Changing Conditions

  • Now The System Model is Established


How vector control is achieved2

How Vector Control is Achieved

  • Hardware

    Comparison


How vector control is achieved3

How Vector Control is Achieved

  • Monitoring the feedback

    • Speed

    • Current

    • Back EMF

  • Comparing to Established Model

  • Adjust accordingly

    • Amount of Deviation

    • Motor/System Model


How vector control is achieved speed changes

How Vector Control is Achieved Speed Changes


What types of vectors exist

What Types of Vectors Exist

  • Open Loop (Encoderless) Vector

    • Establishes the Shaft Position from the current (amp) measurement

    • Advantages

      • Lower Initial Cost

      • Reduced Wiring

    • Disadvantages

      • Not as responsive

      • Limited Speed Range

      • Difficulty with Impact Loads

      • Temperature Changes can be Problematic


What types of vectors exist1

What Types of Vectors Exist

  • Closed Loop Vector

    • Monitors Shaft Position via Feedback

      • Encoder

      • Resolver

    • Advantages

      • Excellent Speed Regulation

      • Full Torque at Zero Speed

      • Systems Capabilities

      • Very Responsive

      • Higher Safety

      • Easier to Tune


What types of vectors exist2

What Types of Vectors Exist

  • Closed Loop Vectors (Cont.)

    • Disadvantages

      • Additional Initial Cost

      • More Wiring

      • Motor Length

      • Requires Better Wiring Practice


What types of vectors exist3

What Types of Vectors Exist

  • Space Vector

    • A method of firing transistor to control a specific element

      • Current Feedback

      • Voltage Feedback

      • Hysteresis

  • Sine Triggered (Coded) Vector

    • A method of firing transistors to control the sine wave


Applications for vector drives

Applications for Vector Drives

  • Extruders

    • Closed Loop for Clamped Dies

    • Open Loop for Continuous Feed

  • Lifts

    • Closed Loop for Safety

    • Has been done with Open Loop and Mechanical Load Brakes – consult manufacturers


Applications for vector drives1

Applications for Vector Drives

  • Bridge Drives – Typically Scalar

  • Trolley Drives – Typically Scalar

  • Conveyors – Typically Scalar

  • Centrifugal Loads – Typically Scalar

    • Potential Energy Savings with Encoderless

  • Spindle Drives – Typically Closed Loop

    • Rapid Response Times

    • Accurate Speed for Tapping

    • Controlled Grind Speed


Applications for vector drives2

Applications for Vector Drives

  • Winders

    • Typically Closed Loop for Tension Control

  • Mooring Winch – Encoderless

  • Mixers – Typically Scalar

  • Line Shaft Replacements – Closed Loop with “electronic line shaft” capability

  • Cut to Length – Closed Loop with Motion Control


Applications for vector drives3

Applications for Vector Drives

  • Flying Shear – Closed Loop with Motion Controller

  • Stacker Cranes

    • Horizontal (X) – Scaler or Closed Loop

    • Elevation (Y) – Closed Loop for Safety

    • Bins or Forks (Z) – Scaler or Closed Loop

  • Crushers

    • Oversized Scaler


Applications for vector drives4

Applications for Vector Drives

  • Types of Braking

    • D.C. Injection

    • Shunt Braking – Most Common

    • Bus Sharing

    • Line Regenerative


Line regenerative applications

Line Regenerative Applications

  • Elevators

  • Hoists

  • Presses

  • Centrifuges

  • Unwind Stands

  • Windmills

  • Pumping Jack Drives

  • Application where Heated Resistors are a problem

  • Test Stands (dynamometers)


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