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VECTOR DRIVES. EASA June 2005 “REACHING NEW HEIGHTS” Dave Ruehle and Bill Colton. Outline. Define a Drive What is an Inverter Drive Why the Vector was Invented How Does a Vector Work What Types of Vectors Exist Typical Applications for Vector Drives. What is a Drive. Control Circuits

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vector drives

VECTOR DRIVES

EASA June 2005

“REACHING NEW HEIGHTS”

Dave Ruehle and Bill Colton

outline
Outline
  • Define a Drive
  • What is an Inverter Drive
  • Why the Vector was Invented
  • How Does a Vector Work
  • What Types of Vectors Exist
  • Typical Applications for Vector Drives
what is a drive
What is a Drive
  • Control Circuits
  • Ancillary devices
    • Couplings
    • Feedback
  • Parts and Pieces
    • Prime Mover
    • Mechanical Reduction(s)
what is an inverter drive
What is an Inverter Drive
  • Terminology
    • Scalar Drive
    • VFD
    • ASD
    • VVVF
    • VFI
what is an inverter drive1
What is an Inverter Drive
  • Speed Control Device
    • Controls STATOR frequency
    • Rotor changes speed with load
      • Speed Changes dependant on motor slip
  • NOT a current controller
    • Only a current limiter
why the vector was invented
Why the Vector was Invented
  • Increase Application Efficiency
    • Better Speed Control
    • Better Torque and/or Force Control
    • More Efficient Use of Power
why the vector was invented1
Why the Vector was Invented
  • Performance Benefits
    • Rotor Speed Regulation
    • Lower Rotor Inertia Requirements
    • Much Wider Speed Ranges
    • Torque (or Force) Control
    • Zero Speed Full Torque
how inverter control is achieved
How Inverter Control Is Achieved
  • Convert AC Input to DC
  • Filter the DC Power
  • Create a digital output pulse train varying the frequency and voltage to Stator
how vector control is achieved
How Vector Control is Achieved
  • Establish the motor/system Model
    • Stator Resistance
    • Stator Inductance
    • Rotor Resistance
    • Rotor Inductance
    • Air gap Losses
    • Machine Losses and Inertia
how vector control is achieved1
How Vector Control is Achieved
  • This is achieved in several fashions
    • Manual – Programming Each Item
    • Auto Tuning
      • Program Basics
      • Run Tests for Additional Items
    • Adaptive Tuning
      • Continuously Adjusting for Changing Conditions
  • Now The System Model is Established
how vector control is achieved3
How Vector Control is Achieved
  • Monitoring the feedback
    • Speed
    • Current
    • Back EMF
  • Comparing to Established Model
  • Adjust accordingly
    • Amount of Deviation
    • Motor/System Model
what types of vectors exist
What Types of Vectors Exist
  • Open Loop (Encoderless) Vector
    • Establishes the Shaft Position from the current (amp) measurement
    • Advantages
      • Lower Initial Cost
      • Reduced Wiring
    • Disadvantages
      • Not as responsive
      • Limited Speed Range
      • Difficulty with Impact Loads
      • Temperature Changes can be Problematic
what types of vectors exist1
What Types of Vectors Exist
  • Closed Loop Vector
    • Monitors Shaft Position via Feedback
      • Encoder
      • Resolver
    • Advantages
      • Excellent Speed Regulation
      • Full Torque at Zero Speed
      • Systems Capabilities
      • Very Responsive
      • Higher Safety
      • Easier to Tune
what types of vectors exist2
What Types of Vectors Exist
  • Closed Loop Vectors (Cont.)
    • Disadvantages
      • Additional Initial Cost
      • More Wiring
      • Motor Length
      • Requires Better Wiring Practice
what types of vectors exist3
What Types of Vectors Exist
  • Space Vector
    • A method of firing transistor to control a specific element
      • Current Feedback
      • Voltage Feedback
      • Hysteresis
  • Sine Triggered (Coded) Vector
    • A method of firing transistors to control the sine wave
applications for vector drives
Applications for Vector Drives
  • Extruders
    • Closed Loop for Clamped Dies
    • Open Loop for Continuous Feed
  • Lifts
    • Closed Loop for Safety
    • Has been done with Open Loop and Mechanical Load Brakes – consult manufacturers
applications for vector drives1
Applications for Vector Drives
  • Bridge Drives – Typically Scalar
  • Trolley Drives – Typically Scalar
  • Conveyors – Typically Scalar
  • Centrifugal Loads – Typically Scalar
    • Potential Energy Savings with Encoderless
  • Spindle Drives – Typically Closed Loop
    • Rapid Response Times
    • Accurate Speed for Tapping
    • Controlled Grind Speed
applications for vector drives2
Applications for Vector Drives
  • Winders
    • Typically Closed Loop for Tension Control
  • Mooring Winch – Encoderless
  • Mixers – Typically Scalar
  • Line Shaft Replacements – Closed Loop with “electronic line shaft” capability
  • Cut to Length – Closed Loop with Motion Control
applications for vector drives3
Applications for Vector Drives
  • Flying Shear – Closed Loop with Motion Controller
  • Stacker Cranes
    • Horizontal (X) – Scaler or Closed Loop
    • Elevation (Y) – Closed Loop for Safety
    • Bins or Forks (Z) – Scaler or Closed Loop
  • Crushers
    • Oversized Scaler
applications for vector drives4
Applications for Vector Drives
  • Types of Braking
    • D.C. Injection
    • Shunt Braking – Most Common
    • Bus Sharing
    • Line Regenerative
line regenerative applications
Line Regenerative Applications
  • Elevators
  • Hoists
  • Presses
  • Centrifuges
  • Unwind Stands
  • Windmills
  • Pumping Jack Drives
  • Application where Heated Resistors are a problem
  • Test Stands (dynamometers)
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