Informational text what s it all about
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Informational Text: What’s It All About?. Rita Maddox Language Arts Consultant April 15, 2005. Remember these? Seven Best Practice Structures. Reading-As-Thinking Representing-to-Learn Small Group Activities Classroom workshop Authentic Expression Reflective Assessment

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Informational text what s it all about

Informational Text: What’s It All About?

Rita Maddox

Language Arts Consultant

April 15, 2005


Remember these seven best practice structures

Remember these?Seven Best Practice Structures

Reading-As-Thinking

Representing-to-Learn

Small Group Activities

Classroom workshop

Authentic Expression

Reflective Assessment

Integrative Units


Reading as thinking

Making Connections

Questioning

Making Inferences

Visualizing

Determining Importance in Text

Synthesizing Information

from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000

Reading-As-Thinking


Reading as thinking making connections

Reading-As-Thinking:Making Connections

  • Between text and past experience or background knowledge

  • Between text and another text

  • Between text and events and experiences in world

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Reading as thinking questioning

Reading-As-Thinking:Questioning

  • Proficient readers continually ask questions

    • Before reading

    • During reading

    • After reading

  • Gives a purpose for reading

  • Monitors understanding of material

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Reading as thinking inferring

Reading-As-Thinking:Inferring

  • Use background knowledge and experience

  • Pay attention to detail

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Reading as thinking visualizing

Reading-As-Thinking:Visualizing

  • Create pictures in your mind

    • Use author’s words

    • Use background experience

  • Make comparisons

  • Note words that appeal to senses

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Reading as thinking determining importance

Reading-As-Thinking:Determining Importance

  • Activate prior knowledge

  • Note characteristics of text

  • Skim text

  • Read bold print, illustrations, graphs and tables

  • Read first and last line of each paragraph carefully

  • Take notes or highlight text

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Reading as thinking synthesizing

Reading-As-Thinking:Synthesizing

  • Retell information

  • Add personal response

  • Make comparisons and contrasts

  • Attempt to answer “I wonder” questions

  • Make application of reading to real world

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Which of these do you think are most effectively used with informational text

Which of these do you think are most effectively used with informational text?

  • Making Connections

  • Questioning

  • Making Inferences

  • Visualizing

  • Determining Importance in Text

  • Synthesizing Information

    Why?


Strategies that work more

Strategies that Work-more. . .

  • Chapter 9, Determining Importance in Text: The Non-Fiction Connection

  • Chapter 3, Strategy Instruction and Practice

  • Chapter 4, Teaching with Short Text

  • Chapter 10, Synthesizing Information: The Evolution of Thought

  • Appendix D: Magazines and Newspapers for Kids and Young Adults

  • Appendix F: Response Options for Each Strategy


Informational text what s it all about

Informational Reading-some thoughts. . .


Reading for information naep national assessment of educational progress 2005

Reading for InformationNAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress)-2005

  • Involves the engagement of the reader with aspects of the real world

  • Reading for information is most commonly associated with textbooks, primary and secondary sources, newspaper and magazine articles, essays, and speeches.


Reading for information naep

Reading for Information NAEP

  • Some features that distinguish informational text from literary text are organization and the way information is presented.

  • Informational text is organized by topic and supporting details, whereas literary text is organized by the structure of a story, poem, or drama. Informational texts may have boldface headings, graphics, illustrations, and captions that signal importance in the text. However, some commonalities exist between literary and informational text and the skills and strategies required for reading each. Both require people to analyze critically the text, reflect on it, and draw conclusions.

    Why is this information important?


Naep informational text

NAEP-Informational Text

  • When reading for information, readers need to know the specific text patterns, or forms of organization (e.g., cause and effect, sequential order, comparison/contrast, opinion and supporting arguments), to develop understanding.

  • People frequently have different purposes for reading text of this nature (e.g., to find specific pieces of information, answer a question, or get some general information when glancing through a magazine article). Reading informational text calls for orientations to the text that differ from those used in reading for literary experience because readers are specifically focused on acquiring information. When people read for information, they may select parts of the text they need, rather than reading from beginning to end.

    What are the instructional implications?


The work of nell duke

The Work of Nell Duke

Nell K. Duke is an Assistant Professor of Teacher Education at Michigan State University and a researcher with the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. Duke has worked with children in early childhood, elementary and secondary settings, most recently as a Primary Grades Literacy Specialist and Director of the Literacy Institute at the Neighborhood House Charter School in Dorchester, Massachusetts. Duke earned her masters and doctorate in Language and Literacy at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and, for two years, served as a Supervisor at the Harvard Literacy Laboratory. Duke's research focuses on early literacy development, particularly among children living in urban poverty. Her specific areas of expertise include addressing the needs of struggling reader-writers and the development of informational literacy.

  • Please read the next five slides. . .


Duke 2005

Duke-2005

  • Studies have long shown that the majority of the reading and writing adults do is nonfiction (Venezky, 1982).

  • Approximately 96% of sites on the World Wide Web contain nonfiction, informational text (Kamil and Lane, 1998).


Duke 20051

Duke-2005

  • Academic achievement in a range of school subjects and academic fields relies heavily on informational reading and writing.

  • Informational literacy is so crucial to success in American higher education, citizenship, and work that our current era is widely known as the "information age."


Duke 20052

Duke-2005

  • Nearly 44 million American adults cannot extract even a single piece of information from a written text if any inference or background knowledge is required (Levy, 1993).

  • Large proportions of American students have weak informational reading and writing skills (e.g., Applebee, Langer, Mullis, Latham, and Gentile, 1994; Daniels, 1990; Langer, Applebee, Mullis, and Foertsch, 1990).


Duke 20053

Duke-2005

  • Low income and minority children are particularly likely to struggle with informational literacy tasks (Applebee, Langer, Mullis, Latham, and Gentile, 1994; Langer, Applebee, Mullis, and Foertsch, 1990).

  • Some education researchers have attributed the "fourth grade slump" in overall literacy achievement in large part to problems with informational literacy (Chall, Jacobs, and Baldwin, 1990).


Duke 20054

Duke-2005

  • Students' difficulties in science may be related to their difficulties with informational text because science achievement is associated with the ability to read informational text but not with the ability to read narrative text (Bernhardt, Destino, Kamil, and Rodriguez-Munoz, 1995).


Reflections

Reflections

  • What did you notice?

  • What surprised you?


Pennsylvania assessment system classroom connections 2005

Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005

  • To understand informational text, readers need to identify the major concepts in the selection and the important details that support each major concept.

  • The manner in which these major and supporting ideas are organized can vary.

  • An author writes an informational selection to provide information for the reader.

  • The nature of that information and the author's specific purpose determine how the writer organizes concepts and ideas.

  • Unlike narrative text that has one predominant structural pattern, informational text has several possible organizational structures


Duke 20055

Duke-2005

  • Five ways to improve comprehension of informational text:

  • Increase access to informational text

  • Increase instructional time with informational text

  • Increase explicit teaching of comprehension strategies, along

  • with lots of opportunities for guided and independent practice

  • 4. Increase attention to the unique and the especially challenging

  • characteristics of informational text

  • 5. Ensure that informational text is used for authentic purposes as

  • much as possible


Duke 20056

Duke-2005

  • Some Comprehension Strategies Worth Teaching-discuss

  • Monitoring and adjusting as needed

  • Activating relevant prior knowledge

  • Generating questions or thinking aloud

  • Attending to and uncovering text structure

  • Drawing inferences

  • Constructing visual representations

  • Summarizing


Text features that signal importance

Text features that signal importance

  • Fonts and Effects

  • Cue Words and Phrases

  • Illustrations and Photographs

  • Graphics

  • Text Organizers

  • Text Structures

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Fonts and effects

Fonts and Effects

  • Titles, headings, boldface print, color print, italics, bullets, captions, labels

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Cue words and phrases

Cue Words and Phrases


Illustrations and photographs

Illustrations and photographs


Graphics

Graphics

  • Diagrams, cross-sections, overlays, distribution maps, word bubbles, tables, graphs, charts

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Text organizers

Text organizers

  • Index, preface, table of contents, glossary, appendix

    from Strategies that Work, Harvey and Goudvis, 2000


Text feature considerations

Text feature considerations

  • How familiar are the students with this type of text feature?

  • How familiar are the students with the information presented by the feature?

  • What is the author's purpose for using the feature?

  • How important is the aid to the overall meaning of the feature?

  • What is the most appropriate way to use this text feature to help readers understand the selection?

  • When is the best time to focus students' attention on the text feature: before, during or after reading?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Text feature considerations1

Text feature considerations

  • What is the author's purpose for using this specialized text feature?

  • What are the main ideas represented?

  • Why did the author choose this type of feature to convey the meaning?

  • Can you think of another way of conveying the same meaning?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Text structure

Text structure

  • Because of the possible complexity of informational writing, teachers may elect to use the following guidelines for creating an informational map as suggested by Vacca and Vacca (1996):

  • Look for the most important idea in the selection. Note any signal words that indicate an overall organizational pattern.

  • Locate additional important ideas. Identify their relationships to the most important one.

  • Outline or diagram these ideas, visually representing in some way the superordinate and subordinate concepts.

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


For your thinking and planning

For your thinking and planning. . .

  • Why did the author write this article?

  • What was the author trying to prove in writing this?

  • What is the most important idea in this selection?

  • What are the three main points made by the author?

  • Are there other ideas the author could have included?

  • What statements support the author's main idea?

  • How does the author prove his/her main point?

  • Can you think of additional ideas that would support this point?

  • Do you agree with the author? Why? Why not?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Text structure1

Text structure

  • Chronological/Sequential Order: A main idea is supported by details that must be in a particular sequence.

  • Enumeration/Description: A major idea is supported by a list of details or examples.

  • Comparison/Contrast: The supporting details of two or more main ideas indicate how those concepts are similar or different.

  • Cause/Effect: The supporting details give the causes of a main idea or the supporting details are the results produced by the main idea.

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Teach students to identify the patterns of organization

Teach students to identifythe patterns of organization

Piccolo (1987) recommends introducing and working on the patterns one at a time and in the following sequence:

  • chronological order

  • enumeration

  • cause/effect and

  • comparison/contrast, problem/solution, question/answer

  • Use short, easy paragraphs and the accompanying teacher created maps or graphic organizers to define, explain and illustrate each structural pattern. Help students discover the common distinguishing features in these examples.

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Text structure chronological sequential order

Text structure:Chronological/Sequential Order


Signal words and phrases associated with chronological sequential order

Signal Words and Phrases Associatedwith Chronological/Sequential Order

  • first next then initially before after when finally preceding following

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Graphic organizer chronological sequential order

Graphic OrganizerChronological/Sequential Order


Chronological sequential order

Chronological/Sequential Order

For your thinking and planning:

  • What is being described in sequence?

  • Why did a chronological order pattern emerge?

  • What are the major steps in this sequence?

  • Why is the sequence important?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Signal words and phrases associated with enumeration

Signal Words and Phrases Associated with Enumeration

  • for instancefor examplesuch asto illustratemost importantin additionanotherfurthermorefirstsecond

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Graphic organizer enumeration

Graphic Organizer-Enumeration


Signal words and phrases associated with cause effect

Signal Words and Phrases Associated with Cause/Effect

  • because of as a result of in order to may be due to effects of therefore consequently for this reason if ... then thus

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Graphic organizer cause effect

Graphic Organizer-Cause/Effect


For your thinking and planning cause and effect

For your thinking and planningCause and Effect

  • What is the cause/effect process the author is describing?

  • Why did a cause/effect structure emerge?

  • What is the cause?

  • What is the effect?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Signal words and phrases associated with comparison contrast

Signal Words and Phrases Associated with Comparison/Contrast

  • different from same as similar to as opposed to instead of although however compared with as well as either... or

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Graphic organizer compare contrast

Graphic Organizer-Compare/Contrast


Graphic organizer compare contrast1

Graphic Organizer-Compare/Contrast


For your thinking and planning comparison contrast

For your thinking and planningComparison/Contrast

  • What is the author comparing/contrasting?

  • Why is the author comparing/contrasting these things?

  • Why did the comparison/contrast structure emerge?

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Caution

Caution!

  • Identifying patterns of organization is not the ultimate goal of text structure teaching. This ability is only beneficial as students internalize knowledge about text structure and subsequently use it to enhance their comprehension.

  • Teach students to use the patterns of organization to improve their comprehension.

    Pennsylvania Assessment System Classroom Connections, 2005


Revisit your glce informational text discuss

Revisit your GLCE/Informational TextDiscuss. . .

  • What connections can you make between your GLCE and the text structure information?

  • How could you use this with your students?


Remember these seven best practice structures1

Reading-As-Thinking

Representing-to-Learn

Small Group Activities

Classroom workshop

Authentic Expression

Reflective Assessment

Integrative Units

How do the Best Practice Structures connect with the reading strategies on the previous page?

Remember these?Seven Best Practice Structures


Notes

Notes


Notes1

Notes


Next steps

Next steps. . .

  • Selection of materials

    and/or

  • Development of lesson using strategy or resources


Materials resource selection

Materials/Resource Selection

  • Teacher/Building/District

  • Grade:

  • Content Area:

  • Materials/resources selected:

  • For use with:

  • Alignment with GLCE:

  • Instructional strategies to be used:

  • Research supporting strategies:

  • Method(s) for differentiating instruction:

  • Resources needed:

  • Directions:

  • Process to check for understanding and/or assessment methodology if applicable:


Lesson instruction plan

Lesson Instruction Plan

  • Teacher/Building/District

  • Grade:

  • Content Area:

  • Learning targets and outcome(s) of lesson:

  • Alignment with GLCE/MCF (Strand/Code):

  • Instructional strategies to be used:

  • Research supporting strategies:

  • Method(s) for differentiating instruction:

  • Resources needed:

  • Directions:

  • Process to check for understanding and/or assessment methodology if applicable:


Rita maddox language arts consultant 989 875 4521 ext 336 rmaddox@edzone net

Rita MaddoxLanguage Arts Consultant989.875.4521, ext. [email protected]


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