Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround:
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Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround: A Decomposition of Improving Schools in Two States. Michael Hansen CALDER at the American Institutes for Research 6 th Annual CALDER Conference February 21, 2013 Washington, DC .

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Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround:A Decomposition of Improving Schools in Two States

Michael Hansen

  • CALDER at the American Institutes for Research

    6thAnnual CALDER Conference

    February 21, 2013

    Washington, DC

Acknowledgements: This research draws upon work performed under contract with the Institute of Education Sciences (ED-04-CO-0025/0020). This work does not necessarily represent the views of any affiliated institutions, and any and all errors are mine.


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

The presumed role of human resourcesin turnaround

  • Turnaround, transformation models

    • Prescribe principal and/or teacher turnover

  • Teacher and principal quality are most consequential schooling inputs

    • Assume teacher/principal quality are static


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Workforce turnover or human capital development?

  • Which of the two models dominates in past turnaround schools?

  • Results:

    • Evidence of elements of both models playing a role

    • Strong improvements among stable teachers

    • Strong incoming teachers, no evidence on weak outgoing teachers


Longitudinal data sources

Longitudinal Data Sources

Florida

  • Math FCAT-SSS

  • Student-teacher linked

  • Spans 2002-03 to 2007-08 years

North Carolina

  • Math EOG tests

  • Student-teacher linked

  • Spans 2002-03 to 2007-08 years

  • Principals


How is school performance identified

Time Span of Observation Window

Baseline Period

Monitoring Period

TA

CLPs

MI

NI

How is School Performance Identified?


Descriptive means of the sample of low performing schools

Descriptive Means of the Sampleof Low-performing Schools


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Decomposing Performance Improvements across Workforce

  • Pre- vs. post-period

  • Turnaround (TA) vs. non-TA

  • 3 types of teachers in workforce:

    • Outgoing

    • Stable

    • Incoming


Identifying teacher groups contributing to performance

Identifying Teacher Groups Contributing to Performance

Outgoing

Stable

Incoming

Pre-period

Post-period


What workforce dynamics turnaround schools

What Workforce Dynamics Turnaround Schools?


What workforce dynamics turnaround schools1

What Workforce Dynamics Turnaround Schools?


Teachers evidence suggestive of human capital development

Teachers: Evidence Suggestive of Human Capital Development


Observed performance in nc schools

Observed performance in NC Schools


Observed performance in nc schools1

Observed performance in NC Schools


Principals similar evidence of human capital development

Principals: Similar Evidence of Human Capital Development


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Results are Robust to

Alternative Specifications

  • Are these results sensitive to:

    • How teacher groups are categorized?

    • How TA schools identified?

  • No qualitative changes to the estimated relationships


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Same Patterns of Improvement Observed in Other Schools?

  • What about middling schools with low growth? How do they improve?

    • Replicate identification and estimation in schools that have higher levels of status, but quick improvement in school growth

  • Improvement of stable teachers most prominent in elementary schools; turnover in middle schools


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Summary of Findings

  • Results show strong, robust gains associated with stable teachers

  • Evidence of high-performing incoming teachers, but not outgoing

  • Does not necessarily vindicate either of two workforce models, but suggests mix or spillover


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Important Study Limitations

  • Descriptive investigation of outlier schools

    • Not causal or representative

  • Improvements are absorbed into staff, though other interventions may be at work

  • Not an evaluation of specific treatment; not predictive of current efforts


Michael hansen calder at the american institutes for research 6 th annual calder conference

Policy Implications

  • Current policy emphasizes human capital turnover

    • Best use of intervention efforts?

    • Can these successes be replicated?

  • Feeds into larger debate about teacher quality

    • Costs of improvement vs. replacement

    • Individual or context-specific effectiveness


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