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INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MYCOLOGY. Fungi (yeast& molds) are eukaryotic organisms whereas bacteria are prokaryotic , they differ regarding;. Size-diameter 4 um-------1um Nucleus. Cytoplasm Cell membrane, Sterol---absent in bacteria Cell wall,

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introduction to medical mycology

INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL MYCOLOGY

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slide2
Fungi (yeast& molds) are eukaryotic organisms whereas bacteria are prokaryotic, they differ regarding;

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slide3
Size-diameter

4 um-------1um

  • Nucleus.
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell membrane,

Sterol---absent in bacteria

  • Cell wall,

Chitin ----peptidoglycane

  • Thermal dimorphism.
  • Metabolism.

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fungal cell wall
Fungal cell wall
  • Consists of chitinnotpeptidoglycan like bacteria.
  • Thus fungi are insensitive to antibiotics as penicillins.

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Chitin is a polysaccharide composed of long chain of n-acetyleglucasamine.
  • Also the fungal cell wall contain other polysaccharide, B-glucan, which is the site of action of some antifungal drugs.

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fungal cell membrane
Fungal cell membrane
  • Consist of ergosterol rather than cholesterollike bacterial cell membrane.
  • Ergosterol is the site of action of antifungal drugs, amphtericin B & azole group

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atmospheric carbon source requirements
Atmospheric & carbon source requirements
  • Most fungi are obligatory aerobes, some are facultative anaerobes, but none are obligatory anaerobes.
  • All fungi require a performed organic source of carbon –association with decaying matter.

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natural habitat
Natural habitat
  • The environment.
  • Exception Candida albicans is part of normal human flora.

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Medical mycology is the study of mycoses of man and their etiologic agents. Mycoses are the diseases caused by fungi. Of the several thousands of species of fungi that are known, less than 100 are pathogenic to man.

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slide14
In addition to those species which are generally recognized as pathogenic to man it is firmly established that under unusual circumstances of abnormal susceptibility of patient, or the traumatic implantation of the fungus, other fungi are capable of causing lesions.Those are called (Opportunistic Fungi.)

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slide15
These circumstances may be :

1. A debilitating condition of the host, as Diabetes.

2. A concurrent disease such as leukaemia.

3. Prolonged treatment with corticosteroids.

4.Immunosuppressive drugs or an antibiotic for long duration.

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morphology of fungi
Morphology of Fungi

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morphology of fungi1
Morphology of Fungi

1. Filamentous fungi (molds)

2. Yeasts

3. Yeast-like fungi

4. Dimorphic fungi

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filamentous fungi
Filamentous Fungi

1.The basic morphological elements of filamentous fungi are long branching filaments or hyphae, which intertwine to produce a mass of filaments or mycelium

2.Colonies are strongly adherent to the medium and unlike most bacterial colonies cannot be emulsified in water.

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slide19

mycelium: septate mycelium: non septate

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mycelia conidia
Mycelia & Conidia

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slide22
3. The surface of these colonies may be velvety, powdery, or may show a cottony aerial mycelium.

4. Pigmentation of the colony itself and of the underlying medium is frequently present.

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colony morphology
Colony Morphology

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yeasts
Yeasts
  • These occur in the form of round or oval bodies which reproduce by the formation of buds known asblastospores.
  • Yeasts colonies resemble bacterial colonies in appearance and in consistency.
  • The only pathogenic yeast in medical mycology is Cryptococcus neoformans.

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yeast colonies
Yeast colonies

Cryptococcus neoformans

Mucoid colonies

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cryptococcus neoformans
Cryptococcus neoformans

India Ink

SEM

Capsule

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yeast like
Yeast-Like

1.These are fungi which occur in the form of budding yeast-like cells and as chains of elongated unbranched filamentous cells which present the appearance of broad septate hyphae. these hyphae intertwine to form a pseudomycelium.

2. The yeast like fungi are grouped together in the genus Candida.

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candida colonies
Candida Colonies

Candida albicans

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candida albicans
Candida albicans

SEM

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thermally dimorphic fungi
Thermally Dimorphic Fungi

These are fungi which exhibit a filamentous mycelial morphology (saprophytic phase) when grown at room temperature 27oC, but have a typical yeast morphology (parasitic phase) inside the body and when grown at 37oC in the laboratory (e.g. Histoplasmosis).

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histoplasma capsulatum 27oc
Histoplasma capsulatum27oC

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histoplasma capsulatum 37oc
Histoplasma capsulatum37oc

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human fungal infection
Human fungal infection;
  • Superficial
  • Subcutaneous
  • Systemic

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superficial mycoses
Superficial mycoses

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subcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycoses

Sporotrichosis

Mycetoma

Chromomycosis

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systemic mycoses
Systemic Mycoses

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systemic mycoses1
Systemic Mycoses

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thank you
Thank You

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