Ch 6
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Ch 6 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 35 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Ch 6. Cellular Respiration. Energy for life. ECOSYSTEM. Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Glucose. CO 2. +. +. H 2 O. O 2. Cellular respiration in mitochondria. ATP. (for cellular work). Heat energy. Breathing vs Cellular Respiration. Breathing- gas exchange

Download Presentation

Ch 6

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ch 6

Ch 6

Cellular Respiration


Energy for life

Energy for life

ECOSYSTEM

Photosynthesis

in chloroplasts

Glucose

CO2

+

+

H2O

O2

Cellular respiration

in mitochondria

ATP

(for cellular work)

Heat energy


Breathing vs cellular respiration

Breathing vs Cellular Respiration

  • Breathing- gas exchange

  • Cellular respiration- aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules by cells


Cellular respiration

Cellular Respiration

  • Energy stored in ATP

+

CO2

H2O

C6H12O6

6

ATPs

+ 6

O2

+ 6

Carbon

dioxide

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Energy


Cell respiration

Cell Respiration


Redox

Redox

  • Oxidation- loss of e-

  • Reduction- addition of e-

Loss of hydrogen atoms

(oxidation)

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

(ATP)

Gain of hydrogen atoms

(reduction)


Glucose oxidation

Glucose Oxidation

  • Significant in oxidation f Glucose

    • Dehydrogenase

    • NAD+--coenzyme, electron carrier molecule

      • Becomes NADH

      • ***FADH

Oxidation

Dehydrogenase

Reduction

NAD+

+ 2 H

NADH

+

H+

(carries

2 electrons)

2 H+ + 2 e–


Electron transport chain

Electron Transport Chain

  • NADH transfer e- to ETC

  • Redox reactions as e- travel through chain

  • O2 final e- acceptor

  • Energy released at each step

NADH

ATP

NAD+

+

2e–

Controlled

release of

energy for

synthesis

of ATP

H+

Electron transport

chain

2e–

1

2

O2

H+

H2O


Cell respiration1

Cell Respiration


Glycolysis

Glycolysis

  • Splits sugar

  • Breaks Glucose from 6- C sugar into two 3- C sugars

  • Yields 2 pyruvate molecules

    • Net gain of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H2O

Glucose

2 ADP

2

NAD+

+

2

P

2

NADH

2

ATP

+

2

H+

2 Pyruvate


Glycolysis1

Glycolysis

  • Substrate-level phosphorylation

    • Transfer of P from substrate to ADP to become ATP

  • Energy banked in ATP and NADH

Enzyme

Enzyme

P

ADP

+

ATP

P

P

Substrate

Product

2 Pyruvate


Glycolysis2

Glycolysis

  • 3 “phases”

    • Energy consuming

    • Glucose split

    • Energy producing

  • G3P is significant intermediate

    • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate


Fig 6 7c

ENERGY INVESTMENT

PHASE

Glucose

ATP

Steps – A fuel molecule is energized,

using ATP.

Step

1

3

1

ADP

Glucose-6-phosphate

P

2

P

Fructose-6-phosphate

ATP

3

ADP

P

P

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

Fig. 6-7c

Step A six-carbon intermediate splits

Into two three-carbon intermediates.

4

4

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

(G3P)

P

P

NAD+

NAD+

Step A redox reaction

generates NADH.

5

5

ENERGY PAYOFF PHASE

5

P

P

NADH

NADH

+ H+

+ H+

P

P

P

P

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

ADP

ADP

6

6

ATP

ATP

P

P

3-Phosphoglycerate

7

7

Steps – ATP and pyruvate

are produced.

P

P

6

9

2-Phosphoglycerate

8

8

H2O

H2O

P

P

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

ADP

ADP

9

9

ATP

ATP

Pyruvate


Pyruvate

Pyruvate

  • Cannot enter Citric Acid Cycle directly

  • 3 reactions take place

    • Carboxyl group removed, given off as CO2

    • Remaining 2-C compound oxidized, NAD+ reduced (2 NADH formed)

    • Coenzyme A combines with 2-C compound to form Acetyl Coenzyme A


Formation of acetyl coa

Formation of Acetyl CoA

 H+

NAD+

NADH

2

CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A

Pyruvate

1

3

CO2

Coenzyme A


Cell respiration2

Cell Respiration


Krebs cycle

Krebs Cycle

  • AKA the Citric Acid Cycle

    • Mitochondrial matrix

  • Starts with Acetyl Coenzyme A

    • Only Acetyl part joins cycle (2-C)

    • Coenzyme A is recycled

  • Nets 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 ATP per turn

    • 1 glucose=2 pyruvate=2 Acelty CoA=2 turns Kreb Cycle


Krebs cycle1

Krebs Cycle


Cell respiration3

Cell Respiration


Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Stage where most ATP is produced

    • Membrane of mitochondria

  • 2 parts

    • ETC

    • Chemiosmosis

  • ETC creates gradient

  • Chemiosmosis uses gradient to generate ATP


Ch 6

Oxidative Phosphorylation

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Protein

complex

of electron

carriers

H+

H+

Electron

carrier

H+

ATP

synthase

H+

Intermembrane

space

Inner

mitochondrial

membrane

FADH2

FAD

Electron

flow

H+

O2

+ 2

1

2

NAD+

NADH

H+

H+

Mitochondrial

matrix

ADP +

P

ATP

H+

H2O

H+

Electron Transport Chain

Chemiosmosis

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION


Overall

Overall

  • Start with 1 glucose molecule

    • Split into 2 pyruvate in Glycolysis

    • Yields 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H20

  • 2 Pyruvate converted to 2 Acetyl CoA

    • Yields 2 NADH

  • Acetyl CoA enters Kreb Cycle

    • Yields 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH (per glucose)

  • Oxidative Phosphorylation

    • Yields 34 ATP


Atp yield

ATP yield

Electron shuttle

across membrane

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion

2

2

NADH

NADH

(or 2 FADH2)

FADH2

2

6

2

NADH

NADH

GLYCOLYSIS

OXIDATIVE

PHOSPHORYLATION

(Electron Transport

and Chemiosmosis)

2

Pyruvate

2 Acetyl

CoA

CITRIC ACID

CYCLE

Glucose

 2 ATP

 about 34 ATP

 2 ATP

by oxidative phosphorylation

by substrate-level

phosphorylation

by substrate-level

phosphorylation

About

38 ATP

Maximum per glucose:


Stopping the chain

Stopping the chain

  • Poisons can act during Oxidative Phosphorylation

    • Rotenone

      • Blocks ETC by binding to e- carrier molecules

    • Cyanide, CO

      • Blocks ETC by binding to e- carrier molecules

      • O2 cannot accept e-

    • Oligomycin

      • Blocks ATP synthase

    • Uncouplers (DNP)

      • Creates leaky membrane


Fig 6 11

Cyanide,

carbon monoxide

Rotenone

Oligomycin

H+

H+

ATP

synthase

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Fig. 6-11

DNP

FADH2

FAD

O2

+ 2

1

2

H+

NADH

NAD+

H+

ATP

ADP +

P

H+

H2O

H+

Chemiosmosis

Electron Transport Chain


Alternate pathways

Alternate Pathways

  • Aerobic v Anaerobic

  • Obligate anaerobes

  • Facultative anaerobes


Fermentation

Fermentation

  • Anaerobic

    • Allows cells to generate ATP in absence of O2

  • Regenerates NAD+ to break down glucose

  • Only yields 2 ATP

  • Lactic Acid in animal muscles

  • Ethanol in bacteria and yeast


Fermentation1

Fermentation

Glucose

Glucose

2

NAD+

2

2 ADP

NAD+

2 ADP

P

2

P

2

GLYCOLYSIS

GLYCOLYSIS

2

ATP

2

NADH

2

NADH

2

ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 Pyruvate

2

NADH

NADH

2

CO2

2

released

NAD+

2

NAD+

2

2 Ethanol

2 Lactate

Lactic acid fermentation

Alcohol fermentation


We eat more than just glucose

We eat more than just glucose

  • Different foods enter the process at different stages

  • Typically broken down before entering cycles


Fig 6 15

Food, such as

peanuts

Fig. 6-15

Carbohydrates

Fats

Proteins

Amino acids

Glycerol

Sugars

Fatty acids

Amino

groups

OXIDATIVE

PHOSPHORYLATION

(Electron Transport

and Chemiosmosis)

CITRIC

ACID

CYCLE

Acetyl

CoA

Glucose

G3P

Pyruvate

GLYCOLYSIS

ATP


Ch 6

  • ETC

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idy2XAlZIVA&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw

  • Glycolysis

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-stLxqPt6E

  • Kreb

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCypoN3X7KQ&feature=related

  • Overview

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXmw3fR8fh0

  • Fermentation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_k8xLrBUfg


  • Login