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Ch 6. Cellular Respiration. Energy for life. ECOSYSTEM. Photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Glucose. CO 2. +. +. H 2 O. O 2. Cellular respiration in mitochondria. ATP. (for cellular work). Heat energy. Breathing vs Cellular Respiration. Breathing- gas exchange

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slide1

Ch 6

Cellular Respiration

energy for life
Energy for life

ECOSYSTEM

Photosynthesis

in chloroplasts

Glucose

CO2

+

+

H2O

O2

Cellular respiration

in mitochondria

ATP

(for cellular work)

Heat energy

breathing vs cellular respiration
Breathing vs Cellular Respiration
  • Breathing- gas exchange
  • Cellular respiration- aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules by cells
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • Energy stored in ATP

+

CO2

H2O

C6H12O6

6

ATPs

+ 6

O2

+ 6

Carbon

dioxide

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Energy

redox
Redox
  • Oxidation- loss of e-
  • Reduction- addition of e-

Loss of hydrogen atoms

(oxidation)

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

(ATP)

Gain of hydrogen atoms

(reduction)

glucose oxidation
Glucose Oxidation
  • Significant in oxidation f Glucose
    • Dehydrogenase
    • NAD+--coenzyme, electron carrier molecule
      • Becomes NADH
      • ***FADH

Oxidation

Dehydrogenase

Reduction

NAD+

+ 2 H

NADH

+

H+

(carries

2 electrons)

2 H+ + 2 e–

electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
  • NADH transfer e- to ETC
  • Redox reactions as e- travel through chain
  • O2 final e- acceptor
  • Energy released at each step

NADH

ATP

NAD+

+

2e–

Controlled

release of

energy for

synthesis

of ATP

H+

Electron transport

chain

2e–

1

2

O2

H+

H2O

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Splits sugar
  • Breaks Glucose from 6- C sugar into two 3- C sugars
  • Yields 2 pyruvate molecules
    • Net gain of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H2O

Glucose

2 ADP

2

NAD+

+

2

P

2

NADH

2

ATP

+

2

H+

2 Pyruvate

glycolysis1
Glycolysis
  • Substrate-level phosphorylation
    • Transfer of P from substrate to ADP to become ATP
  • Energy banked in ATP and NADH

Enzyme

Enzyme

P

ADP

+

ATP

P

P

Substrate

Product

2 Pyruvate

glycolysis2
Glycolysis
  • 3 “phases”
    • Energy consuming
    • Glucose split
    • Energy producing
  • G3P is significant intermediate
    • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
fig 6 7c

ENERGY INVESTMENT

PHASE

Glucose

ATP

Steps – A fuel molecule is energized,

using ATP.

Step

1

3

1

ADP

Glucose-6-phosphate

P

2

P

Fructose-6-phosphate

ATP

3

ADP

P

P

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

Fig. 6-7c

Step A six-carbon intermediate splits

Into two three-carbon intermediates.

4

4

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

(G3P)

P

P

NAD+

NAD+

Step A redox reaction

generates NADH.

5

5

ENERGY PAYOFF PHASE

5

P

P

NADH

NADH

+ H+

+ H+

P

P

P

P

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

ADP

ADP

6

6

ATP

ATP

P

P

3-Phosphoglycerate

7

7

Steps – ATP and pyruvate

are produced.

P

P

6

9

2-Phosphoglycerate

8

8

H2O

H2O

P

P

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

ADP

ADP

9

9

ATP

ATP

Pyruvate

pyruvate
Pyruvate
  • Cannot enter Citric Acid Cycle directly
  • 3 reactions take place
    • Carboxyl group removed, given off as CO2
    • Remaining 2-C compound oxidized, NAD+ reduced (2 NADH formed)
    • Coenzyme A combines with 2-C compound to form Acetyl Coenzyme A
formation of acetyl coa
Formation of Acetyl CoA

 H+

NAD+

NADH

2

CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A

Pyruvate

1

3

CO2

Coenzyme A

krebs cycle
Krebs Cycle
  • AKA the Citric Acid Cycle
    • Mitochondrial matrix
  • Starts with Acetyl Coenzyme A
    • Only Acetyl part joins cycle (2-C)
    • Coenzyme A is recycled
  • Nets 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 ATP per turn
    • 1 glucose=2 pyruvate=2 Acelty CoA=2 turns Kreb Cycle
oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Stage where most ATP is produced
    • Membrane of mitochondria
  • 2 parts
    • ETC
    • Chemiosmosis
  • ETC creates gradient
  • Chemiosmosis uses gradient to generate ATP
slide21

Oxidative Phosphorylation

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Protein

complex

of electron

carriers

H+

H+

Electron

carrier

H+

ATP

synthase

H+

Intermembrane

space

Inner

mitochondrial

membrane

FADH2

FAD

Electron

flow

H+

O2

+ 2

1

2

NAD+

NADH

H+

H+

Mitochondrial

matrix

ADP +

P

ATP

H+

H2O

H+

Electron Transport Chain

Chemiosmosis

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

overall
Overall
  • Start with 1 glucose molecule
    • Split into 2 pyruvate in Glycolysis
    • Yields 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H20
  • 2 Pyruvate converted to 2 Acetyl CoA
    • Yields 2 NADH
  • Acetyl CoA enters Kreb Cycle
    • Yields 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH (per glucose)
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Yields 34 ATP
atp yield
ATP yield

Electron shuttle

across membrane

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion

2

2

NADH

NADH

(or 2 FADH2)

FADH2

2

6

2

NADH

NADH

GLYCOLYSIS

OXIDATIVE

PHOSPHORYLATION

(Electron Transport

and Chemiosmosis)

2

Pyruvate

2 Acetyl

CoA

CITRIC ACID

CYCLE

Glucose

 2 ATP

 about 34 ATP

 2 ATP

by oxidative phosphorylation

by substrate-level

phosphorylation

by substrate-level

phosphorylation

About

38 ATP

Maximum per glucose:

stopping the chain
Stopping the chain
  • Poisons can act during Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Rotenone
      • Blocks ETC by binding to e- carrier molecules
    • Cyanide, CO
      • Blocks ETC by binding to e- carrier molecules
      • O2 cannot accept e-
    • Oligomycin
      • Blocks ATP synthase
    • Uncouplers (DNP)
      • Creates leaky membrane
fig 6 11

Cyanide,

carbon monoxide

Rotenone

Oligomycin

H+

H+

ATP

synthase

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Fig. 6-11

DNP

FADH2

FAD

O2

+ 2

1

2

H+

NADH

NAD+

H+

ATP

ADP +

P

H+

H2O

H+

Chemiosmosis

Electron Transport Chain

alternate pathways
Alternate Pathways
  • Aerobic v Anaerobic
  • Obligate anaerobes
  • Facultative anaerobes
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Anaerobic
    • Allows cells to generate ATP in absence of O2
  • Regenerates NAD+ to break down glucose
  • Only yields 2 ATP
  • Lactic Acid in animal muscles
  • Ethanol in bacteria and yeast
fermentation1
Fermentation

Glucose

Glucose

2

NAD+

2

2 ADP

NAD+

2 ADP

P

2

P

2

GLYCOLYSIS

GLYCOLYSIS

2

ATP

2

NADH

2

NADH

2

ATP

2 Pyruvate

2 Pyruvate

2

NADH

NADH

2

CO2

2

released

NAD+

2

NAD+

2

2 Ethanol

2 Lactate

Lactic acid fermentation

Alcohol fermentation

we eat more than just glucose
We eat more than just glucose
  • Different foods enter the process at different stages
  • Typically broken down before entering cycles
fig 6 15

Food, such as

peanuts

Fig. 6-15

Carbohydrates

Fats

Proteins

Amino acids

Glycerol

Sugars

Fatty acids

Amino

groups

OXIDATIVE

PHOSPHORYLATION

(Electron Transport

and Chemiosmosis)

CITRIC

ACID

CYCLE

Acetyl

CoA

Glucose

G3P

Pyruvate

GLYCOLYSIS

ATP

slide31
ETC
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idy2XAlZIVA&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw
  • Glycolysis
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-stLxqPt6E
  • Kreb
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCypoN3X7KQ&feature=related
  • Overview
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXmw3fR8fh0
  • Fermentation
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_k8xLrBUfg
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