Mathematics Grade Level Considerations for Grades 3–5. Considerations for Grades 3–5. Vocabulary Style Guide Representation of numbers Contexts Item Difficulty Assessment Targets. Vocabulary. Items must be written so students can easily understand the item or task.

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Mathematics Grade Level Considerations for Grades 3–5

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Mathematics Grade Level Considerations for Grades 3–5

Considerations for Grades 3–5

Vocabulary

Style Guide

Representation of numbers

Contexts

Item Difficulty

Assessment Targets

Vocabulary

Items must be written so students can easily understand the item or task.

Use vocabulary at or below grade-level.

Style

Overview of Mathematics Style Conventions for Grades 3–5

John had 9 red balloons and 14 white balloons.

How many balloons does he have in all?

19 + ____ = 35

10, 16, 22, 28, ?

Words vs. Numerals

Words vs. Numerals

Use words for a number that is the first word in a sentence

Use words for numbers zero through nine

Use numerals for:

Numbers 10 and above

Numbers that precede abbreviated units of measure (e.g., 10 cm, 8 sq. ft.)

Numbers that precede or follow symbols such as the percent sign or dollar sign (e.g., 5%, $9.32)

Dates and years (e.g., July 4)

Time of day that appears before A.M. and P.M. (e.g., 11 A.M., 12:30 P.M.)

Ordered pairs and coordinates (e.g., (3,4))

Words vs. Numerals

Example 1:

Example 2:

Patty has 10 pennies and 3 nickels. How much money does Patty have?

13¢

25¢

40¢

53¢

The table below shows the number of cans two students collected.

How many more cans did Sara collect than Lorenzo? Show your work or explain how you know.

Commas in Numbers

Use commas in numbers:

With five or more digits (e.g., 90,000)

With four digits if the number appears with numbers of five or more digits (e.g., 1,000 + 5,000 + 10,000)

Written as words (e.g., seventy-three thousand, one hundred)

Do not use commas in:

Numbers with four digits if all numbers with which it appears contain four or less digits (e.g., 50 + 200 + 1000)

Compound measures (e.g., 5 feet 9 inches tall)

Representing Missing Values

6 + ☐ = 11

3, 5, 7, 9, ?

5 × 7 = ?

3+6 = ?

Look at this equation:

Contexts

Appropriate contexts:

Sports familiar played during physical education (basketball, soccer)

School activities (class trips, library, music, children’s games)

Inappropriate contexts:

Skiing

Backyard swimming pools

Earning money at a part-time job or saving to buy a car

Item Difficulty

Items should include a range of difficulty

Anticipated difficulty for sample items

Claim 1

Concepts and Procedures: Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.

Selected Response

Constructed Response

Technology-Enhanced

Extended Response and Performance Tasks

Assessment Targets Measured in Grades 3–5

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Number and Operations – Base 10

Number and Operations – Fractions

Measurement and Data

Geometry

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Grade 3: Understanding meaning of multiplication and division

Grade 4: Applying understanding

Grade 5: Writing and interpreting numerical expressions

Number and Operations – Base 10

Grade 3: Using place value and properties of operations to add and subtract whole numbers

Grade 4: Multiplying and dividing whole numbers

Grade 5: Solving problems with decimals using the four operations

Number and Operations – Fractions

Grade 3: Understanding of fractions as numbers

Grade 4: Understand fraction equivalenceand operations with fractions

Grade 5: Solving problems involving the four operations

Measurement and Data

Grade 3: Measuring time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects and solving simple one-step word problems

Grade 4: Solving problems involving measurement, representing and interpreting data, and understanding angles

Grade 5: Understanding volume and solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume

Geometry

Grade 3: Understanding that shapes in different categories may share attributes and recognizing quadrilaterals

Grade 4: Classifying shapes based on properties

Grade 5: Graphing points on the coordinate plane and understanding that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional shapes also belong to all subcategories of that category

Claim 2 – Problem Solving

Selected Response, Constructed Response, Extended Response, and Technology-Enhanced items that focus on problem solving

Items and tasks require students to construct their own pathway to the solution

Relevant verbs include:

understand, solve, apply, describe, illustrate, interpret, and analyze

Claim 3 – Communicating Reasoning

Constructed Response, Extended Response, and Technology-Enhanced items and tasks that focus on mathematical reasoning

Relevant verbs include:

understand, explain, justify, prove, derive, assess, illustrate, and analyze

Claim 4 – Modeling and Data Analysis

Performance Tasks and collections ofExtended Response items

Real world problems

Draw upon knowledge and skills articulatedin the progression of standards up to the gradebeing assessed